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136 Safety Management Systems for Airports Rate of Job-Related Injuries at the Ramp 10 Injuries/10,000 ops 9 8 7 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Month Figure 25. Rate of job-related injuries per 10,000 operations at the ramp. In addition, always attempt to identify any factors causing the trend. The analysis is more con- vincing if it demonstrates that apparent trends can be explained by plausible relationships with other factors. For example, if using the example data depicted in Table 25 and plotting the aver- age number of accidents on the apron for each month over a 6-year period, the bar chart depicted in Figure 26 can be developed. The figure suggests the number of accidents is higher for July. Causes could be related to the increase in operations, or to the frequency of low visibility conditions, or to both factors. 6.8 Safety Training and Education Your airport needs to establish and provide a training program to staff to maintain excellent safety levels. This may apply to general work functions and SMS functions. It may also apply to Average Number of Apron Accidents 4.50 4.00 4.00 Number of Accidents 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.83 1.67 1.50 1.50 1.331.33 1.17 1.17 1.00 0.83 0.67 0.83 0.50 0.50 0.00 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Month Figure 26. Monthly average of apron accidents.

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SMS Operation 137 contractors and service providers who need to be aware of at least a minimum level of airport SMS requirements and emergency procedures. Moreover, safety training and education are essential elements in creating a positive safety culture within the airport organization, which is vital to the operation of an effective SMS. All employees must have the skills and competencies necessary to perform their duties in an effective and safe manner. In addition to safety skills training, airport workers need to be aware of their SMS roles, safety responsibilities, and how they can cooperate to bring about a safety sys- tem that works. Some key players, like the SMS Manager, may need to develop their capacity to manage and run the SMS processes. Safety training should begin with the initial indoctrination of employees and continue through- out the duration of their employment. Specific safety management training should be provided for staff occupying positions with particular safety responsibilities. The training program should ensure that the safety policy and principles of the organization are understood and adhered to by all staff. According to AC 150/5200-37(1), safety training and education should consist of the following: A documented process to identify training requirements A validation process that measures the effectiveness of training Initial (general safety) job-specific training Recurrent safety training Indoctrination and initial training incorporating SMS Training that includes human factors and organizational factors Currently, training programs are administered by individual airports and safety training is focused on 14 CFR Part 139 requirements, which at this point does not address SMS. This sec- tion of the guidebook describes a systemic approach to safety training and suggests four levels of safety and SMS training programs to cover the needs of different staff levels and SMS functions in the airport organization. Systemic Approach to Safety Training Effective training does not just happen; it requires planning and management. Every airport training program should follow a Systems Approach to Training (SAT). The SAT process is depicted in Figure 27 and includes the activities described below. Needs Analysis: Identify the jobs and the tasks associated with each position and determine the related knowledge and skills required to safely perform those tasks. Moreover, the safety risk management process and the SMS review will also help identify training needs. Design: Define the training objectives and the methods by which training will be delivered, and design test items and methods to verify whether training objectives have been met. Development: Establish the sequence and level in which the training topics will be presented, develop lesson plans, develop or assemble training manuals, gather all required training mate- rials, and identify instructors. Instruction: Prepare instructors, deliver training, and obtain feedback (testing) of participants. Program Evaluation: Measure the effectiveness of the training program through internal and external evaluation to validate the program and promote identification of areas where improvement might be indicated. Two types of evaluation should take place: -- A post-training evaluation questionnaire given to the course participants immediately following the training. -- A post-exercise verification of the training retention, conducted no less than 2 weeks after the training and no more than 90 days, through a brief interview with selected participants.

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138 Safety Management Systems for Airports Determine knowledge and skills required to safely perform tasks Identify tasks associated with Needs each job Analysis Safety risk management and safety reviews Define training objectives Define delivery method Design Training Design test items and methods Documentation Define training sequence Develop lesson plans Develop Review Prepare training materials Training Training Identify resources: instructors, training facilities, equip., etc. Prepare instructors Schedule and deliver training Instruction Test participants Perform evaluation Program Identify needs for improvement Evaluation Figure 27. Systemic approach to safety training diagram. Review: Based on the results obtained during the Program Evaluation phase, revisions and updates to the program should be made; Documentation: All documentation generated during these processes is managed following the document control and management process. Training Levels Under the SMS framework, four types of safety training should be provided to personnel working at the airport: indoctrination training, job-specific training, SMS training for managers and supervisors, and SMS training for staff. Indoctrination Training Mandatory and recurrent SMS indoctrination training should be provided to all personnel performing duties at the airport with access to secured areas. This includes personnel from all organizations authorized to operate at the airport such as aircraft operators, fuel providers, cater- ing organizations, ground services companies, FBOs, enforcement agencies, and government organizations. SMS indoctrination training can be delivered in conjunction with the security identification display areas (SIDA) identification process and prior to the issuance of the access control card. This training delivery can be presented in a classroom setting and include one or more support- ing materials, such as pamphlets, introductory briefs, videos, or PowerPoint presentations. The safety module should include the basic topics given in Table 28 and should be designed for anyone working at the airport.

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SMS Operation 139 Table 28. Training program for SMS indoctrination. Item Description Prerequisites: None Duration: 30 min to 1 hour Schedule: Offered regularly, as required Intended for: All new airport employees and personnel from other organizations authorized to operate at the airport Topics: Safety policy and objectives, safety roles and responsibilities, how to report safety issues, familiarization with airport areas, rules and regulations, communication procedures, and general emergency procedures Testing: Quiz at the end of the session (pass/fail) Job-Specific Training Most categories of airport staff will require additional occupational health and safety training to ensure they can perform their duties in a safe manner. Part of this safety skills training is a statutory requirement and is contained within specific regulations. Other required skills will be identified in the airport's job training needs analysis. Clearly, the specific types of training required for airport staff members working in airport areas will depend on the functions fulfilled by the individual. This program should be customized by the head of each airport department and should be fabricated for the specific needs of each employee. A suggested general program for this train- ing is described in Table 29. SMS Training for Managers and Supervisors It is essential that the airport management team understand the principles on which the SMS is based. Training should ensure that airport managers and supervisors be familiar with their roles, responsibilities, and accountability for safety. They should receive training that addresses the legal issues involved and their legal liabilities. Also, managers should know their SMS roles; how to set specific safety goals for their departments/sections; the fundamentals of reactive and proactive haz- ard identification and safety risk management processes; and how to identify, assess, prioritize, and treat risks in their area of responsibility. A suggested prerequisite for this training is SMS indoctri- nation because managers and supervisors should be aware of the SMS training their employees are receiving. Table 30 includes a basic training program with the topics that should be covered. Table 29. Job specific safety training program. Item Description Prerequisites: SMS indoctrination Duration: As required Location: On-the-job training (office, field, etc.) Schedule: To be completed within the first two weeks of employment Intended for: All new airport employees Topics: Training aimed at a specific work area: familiarization with the department, description of specific tasks, description of specific procedures, the importance of safety, main hazards and risks on the job, key safety procedures, specific emergency procedures of key safety personnel Testing: Overall evaluation by the instructor (pass/fail)

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140 Safety Management Systems for Airports Table 30. SMS training program for managers. Item Description Prerequisites: SMS indoctrination Duration: 1 day Schedule: Offered as required Intended for: Managers and Supervisors Topics: SMS legal requirements and regulations; SMS roles and safety responsibilities; procedures for setting policies, objectives and goals; establishing safety performance indicators; safety communication; demonstration of commitment to the airport safety policy; developing SOPs; cascading meeting; how to manage safety risks including hazard identification, risk assessment, prioritization and treatment; management of change; safety culture and promotion; and continuous improvement. Testing: Quiz at the end of the course and completion of three hazard identifications and corresponding risk assessments (pass/fail) SMS Staff Training To ensure the effectiveness of the SMS program at your airport, those individuals with a direct role in the management of the program will supplement their skills through specific training pro- grams. They include the following: SMS concepts Safety risk management Investigation and root cause analysis techniques Reviews, inspections, and audit procedures and techniques Data collection and database management Trend analysis It is important that staff performing these tasks receive adequate training in specific methods and techniques. Depending on the depth of training required and the level of existing expert- ise in safety management within the organization, it may be necessary to obtain assistance from external specialists to provide this training. Table 31 depicts a general training program for this level. In addition to these four types of safety training, individuals who require key safety skills will need to receive up-to-date refresher training. The frequency should vary according to the degree of the risk, the use of the skills, the rate at which skills can be forgotten, and when any significant Table 31. Training program for SMS staff. Item Description Prerequisites: SMS Training for Managers Duration: 5 days Schedule: To be completed during the first 6 weeks of employment Intended for: SMS staff Topics: Basic safety concepts; SMS pillars and elements; safety risk management; SMS planning, implementation and operation; investigation roles, techniques and procedures; interviewing and surveying techniques; data collection and database management techniques; safety records management; trend analysis Testing: Test (passing grade of 80%)

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SMS Operation 141 changes to procedures are made. Refresher training should be programmed and recorded when completed. At small airports, a formal systemic approach to training is not feasible and the process should be simplified. For such cases, it is likely that only one or two air- port employees will have a more comprehensive SMS training. Other employees will require only SMS indoctrination training that may be provided on the job by the SMS Manager. Training Documentation Records of all training sessions, attendees, test results, and syllabus review and updates should be stored and managed. An employee training record should be maintained for each employee. This may include the following: Training completed before joining the airport organization Training completed during the employment phase Further training programmed or considered desirable Documentary evidence such as copies of training certificates, college certificates, and the like may be attached or referred to in the training record or maintained in a personnel file.