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ANNEX E Hazard Identification Tools Table 38 provides summary descriptions of a selection of hazard identification and hazard analysis tools. This information was obtained from the FAA Safety Management System Manual (2004)(13), which also provides more detailed information about the tools' utility and use. 164
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Hazard Identification Tools 165 Table 38. Hazard analysis tools. Tool or Method Summary Description Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA) Uses Functional Analysis to determine "what" a system (e.g., equipment procedures or operations) must do to complete a mission or higher function. The failure or anomalous behavior of these functions is identified as a hazard and ranked according to severity based on its operational effect. Fault/Failure Hazard Analysis Tool to identify and evaluate component hazard modes, determine causes of these hazards, and determine resultant effects to the subsystem and its operation. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Hypothesizes failure events, which impact (FMEA) and Failure Modes, Effects, and the operation or system. These events are Criticality Analysis (FMECA) identified as hazards. Often used as an input to a sub-system hazard analysis. Operations Analysis This provides an itemized sequence of events or flow diagrams depicting the major events of an operation or system. Failure or anomalous behavior in these events is identified as a hazard. Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) The PHA provides an initial overview of the hazards present in the overall flow of the operation. It provides a hazard assessment that is broad, but not usually deep. "What if..." Tool The "what if..." tool is a brainstorming method. It is designed to add discipline and structure to the experiential and intuitive expertise of operational personnel. Scenario Process Tool This tool diagrams events in their logical relationships. These events or their anomalous behavior are identified as hazards. Change Analysis Identifies planned and potential unplanned changes to a system (e.g., operation, equipment, or procedure). Hazards are then identified using one of the other tools. Cause and Effect Tool Also known as the "fish bone" and Ishikawa Diagram. This is a variation of the Logic Diagram. Effects are depicted as horizontal lines with causes entering the effect line diagonally (like a fish bone). The result is the hazard. Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Tool Highly structured hazard identification tool. It uses a standard set of guide terms that are then linked to a tailored set of process terms. Each link is evaluated for its validity. Valid links are identified as hazards. Mapping Tool Also known as Map Analysis and Zonal Safety Analysis. Uses models and schematics to identify and evaluate hazards and hazard causes. Depicts energies and sources of hazards relative to vulnerable entities. Interface Analysis Used to discover the hazardous linkages between interfacing systems. Accident and Incident Analysis Uses data on recorded hazardous events. These events are grouped in various ways according to a pre-established criteria usually a common cause or outcome. The groupings are identified as hazards. (continued on next page)
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166 Safety Management Systems for Airports Table 38. (Continued). Tool or Method Summary Description Interview Tool Knowledgeable operational personnel are queried or interviewed confidentially. They are asked to freely describe things that have gone or could go wrong in a system. Inspection Tool Also called the Survey Tool. Hazards are identified by direct observation of a system. Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) Used to examine the safety of a single job in detail. The job is broken down into individual stages. Each stage is then analyzed for events associated with that stage that can go wrong. These events are identified as hazards. Opportunity Assessment Identifies opportunities for expansion of an organization's capabilities. Risk-related barriers to this expansion are identified as hazards. The hazards are then risk managed. Energy Trace-Barrier Analysis (ETBA) Highly structured. Documents all energy sources in system. The energy sources are identified as hazards. Barrier between the energy sources and the operators, maintainers, and other systems are identified as mitigations. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Similar to a negative Logic Diagram but with the addition of terms (and, or, and/or, exclusion) that aid in the assessment of probability. Multi-Linear Event Sequencing (MES) Tool Also called the timeline tool and the sequential time event plot (STEP). Used to detect hazards from the time relationship between various operational or systemic events. Management Oversight and Risk Tree Very structured and time consuming. Very (MORT) detailed logic diagram useful for assessing the highest risks and most operational critical activities. FAA Operational Support Test and Multi-step process used by all FAA Evaluation (T&E) Gold Standard for secondary maintenance organizations to National design, develop, test and evaluate, and Airspace Systems Hardware and deliver hardware and software Software Modifications modifications to existing operational NAS systems. This process ensures that existing functionality is maintained and that modifications add new capability or improve existing capability. All safety significant functionality is verified with each delivered product baseline.