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30 Safety Management Systems for Airports Act. Take action when something is wrong or could be done better. This may be a correc- tive, preventive, or improvement action. Of course, in most cases, action to "put things right" will also occur in airports that do not have a formal SMS. However, in some cases, the same prob- lems occur time and again because there is no mechanism to assess risks, record, prioritize, and deal with them. This is one of the great benefits of an SMS. Whether you use paper forms, spreadsheets, or software applications, every SMS must have a means to identify hazards, assess risks, develop possible improvements, plan actions, and monitor hazards and mitigation actions. The actions that are taken may vary from case to case. They may include removing an obstacle, cleaning debris, providing training to employees, improving an SOP, purchasing new equipment, or making other remediation. 2.6 How Does an SMS Accomplish Key Objectives? An SMS structure with the essential elements is integrated in the airport organization. The safety policy statement, organizational structure, and safety objectives provide the overall SMS framework. That framework is promoted to staff via training and education, safety communi- cation, and the fostering of an attitude of continuous improvement. Risk is then managed through the hazard identification, accident investigation, risk assess- ment, mitigation actions, and risk monitoring processes. Safety is ensured with trend analysis, auditing, and management review. Ultimately, through the implementation of an effective SMS, safety is woven into the fabric of the organization and becomes part of the airport's culture and the way people do their jobs. The heart of an SMS is the SRM process. A safety concern, problem, hazard, or occurrence is identified and reported (what's wrong?). It is then analyzed (how can we fix it?) and a mitigation measure is implemented, followed by an evaluation of its effectiveness (did it work?). If the prob- lem is resolved, then it is documented. If it is not resolved, it must be re-analyzed, possibly result- ing in a different mitigation measure followed by another evaluation. 2.7 Do I Need an SMS? Most airports need an SMS, and not only to comply with possible future FAA regulations. To determine whether your airport needs an SMS, consider the following questions: Have you or your staff ever had an accident that could have been prevented with a little more foresight? Do you feel that you would like to be committed to airport safety, but do not know where to start? Has there been an accident at your workplace and you found out later that most of the staff could actually see it coming but did not say anything? Have safety issues been reported, but you could not effectively address the issues because you had no system for evaluating how serious they were, or even recording them?