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SMS Implementation 55 Normalizing accident rates makes these numbers comparable To normalize your rates you can multiply your annual accident rate by 10,000 movements and divide by the total number of movements during that year. In this case you are normalizing for 10,000 movements per year. For example, a large airport had 3 runway incursions in 2007. During that year, the number of movements was 200,000. The normalized rate is 0.15 (3 × 10,000 ÷ 200,000) incursions per 10,000 movements per year. The normalization technique helps you compare the rates if your annual number of movements changes and even compare them with the rates for other airports. 4.3 Appoint the SMS Manager SMS is based fundamentally on processes and procedures. If not already in place, these will need to be developed, implemented, and coordinated. Therefore, SMS requires a person respon- sible to coordinate the integration and the everyday administration of these processes. It is common that the airport management has not decided who will be the SMS Manager before the SMS program is developed and implementation starts. The term SMS Champion is used to make clear that the person responsible for the SMS implementation is not necessarily the person who will run the SMS. However, whenever possible, the SMS Champion and SMS Man- ager should be the same person. Similar to the SMS Champion, who is in charge of the SMS implementation, the SMS Man- ager should have access to both top management and line personnel; the SMS Manager should be knowledgeable in the operational activities of the airport and be respected by the whole organization. Depending on the size of the organization, the SMS Manager could be dedicated full time to this function, or this responsibility could be added to existing duties. For example, the SMS Manager could be supported by a team of members from within the organization as required. An SMS Manager could be appointed at the end of the implementation process; however, it is recommended that the SMS Manager get involved as early as possible and have input during the development. Early involvement will help once the manager becomes responsible for daily administration of the system.