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CHAPTER 5 Safety Risk Management SRM is the core process behind SMS. It is through SRM that an airport will be able to deter- mine and classify risks to develop appropriate risk mitigation strategies. According to FAA AC 150/5200-37, "SRM is a systematic, explicit, and comprehensive approach for managing safety risk at all levels throughout the airport."(1) The SRM process ensures the following: · Hazards and other safety issues are identified and documented. The associated risks are mit- igated, monitored, and controlled · Risk is determined, assessed, and classified. Unacceptable risk is mitigated · Corrective actions are taken after accidents and incidents · The effectiveness of the risk mitigation strategies is monitored and assessed · There is continuous progress toward improving safety Realistically, some risk must be accepted. How much is accepted or not accepted by the air- port organization is still a prerogative of the Accountable Executive. This chapter provides some recommendations on risk tolerability that may be used by airports. When an Accountable Exec- utive decides to accept a risk, the decision should be coordinated with the affected personnel and stakeholders, and then documented so that, in the future, everyone will know and understand the elements of the decision and why it was made. The SRM process and its five steps are explained in this chapter. In addition, this chapter also describes how to use the risk matrix, presents a list of common airport hazards with associated risks, and describes a complete example of the SRM process for several airport hazards. 5.1 The SRM Process SRM is a process for controlling risk in an organization. There are different levels of risks. Some are unacceptable for airport activities. With SRM you will be able to identify those risks that require specific actions to reduce them to acceptable levels. Moreover, you will be able to classify and prioritize the risks so that you can make the best use of your limited resources. The SRM process is depicted in Figure 6. It comprises five steps: 1. Describe the system 2. Identify hazards 3. Determine risk 4. Assess and analyze the risk 5. Treat and monitor risk 62
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Safety Risk Management 63 P M E Mandatory reports O 1 R Collect data Incident reports N Reactive F Accident reports I Describe O Processes Trend analysis T R O the System M R A I N Analyze data Hazard reports N C G Surveys/Audits E Proactive Self-Inspections Processes Direct observations Is data Trend analysis NO revealing potential hazards? YES Identify 2 hazards Model Selection Data Entry Are there NO Visualization hazards that pose a Manipulation risk? Analysis YES 3 Determine Risk Equipment Environment Physical Characteristics 4 Assess risks Human Factors Procedures NO External Factors Are there Organizational Factors risks that need mitigation measures? YES Determine Level of Treat the Risk Severity 5 (mitigation actions) Determine Level of Probability NO Have hazards created by mitigating Compare with measures been identified Acceptable and assessed? Threshold Modify YES mitigation plan Classify and Has risk Prioritize been lowered to an acceptable level? NO YES Document: Event/Situation; Hazard; or Risk Acceptance and Rationale Is there any Avoid NO action to be taken? Transfer YES COMMUNICATE AND IMPLEMENT Control MITIGATION ACTIONS Figure 6. SRM life cycle.