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64 Safety Management Systems for Airports These steps should be applied in sequence as each is a building block for the next one. It is important to complete each step before proceeding to the next. Until the hazard identification step is complete, it is not possible to properly prioritize risk control efforts. Each of these steps is described in detail in this chapter. An example of the application of the SRM process is presented in Section 5.7. 5.2 Describe the System The first step in performing SRM is to describe the system under consideration. The system description should include the functions, general physical characteristics and resources, and operations of the system. When considering the environment of the airport system, consider all of the safety-related functions already outlined in the ACM. The existing safety functions should steer the focus of the risk management analysis and will assist in determining potential risk control strategies. Normally, for airport hazards, a detailed physical description is not necessary. It may be easier to consider the system as an activity, such as a ramp operation, or in terms of the phys- ical area involved (e.g., Taxiway D or airside). The main objectives of identifying the system are (1) to characterize, limit, and document the scope of the problem or change and (2) to identify stakeholders. In general, a model is used to remind you what should be described to characterize the system. While there are many models available, the model called "5M" is simple and takes into account the interrelationships and integration of the equipment, people, environment, and procedures of the system. The 5M model has five components: Mission: It is the airport activity or the reason that all the other elements are brought together. Example: operation for transporting baggage from parked aircraft to baggage claim area. Man: This is the human element of a system. If a system requires humans for operation, main- tenance, or installation, this element must be considered in the system description. For exam- ple, an airport construction activity is conducted by contract workers and monitored by airport staff. This group of people and the people they interact with during the construction activity constitute the human element of this system. Machine: This is the equipment element of a system. Example: the operation to transport bag- gage on the ramp may require a baggage tug and baggage carts. Media: It is the environment in which a system will be operated, maintained, and installed. This environment includes operational and ambient conditions. Operational environment means the conditions in which the mission or function is planned and executed. Operational conditions are those involving things such as volume of traffic, communication congestion, and workload. Ambient conditions are those involving temperature, humidity, light, precip- itation, visibility, and so forth. An example is winter operation conditions. Management: This element includes the organization, procedures, policy, rules, and regulations involved in operating, maintaining, installing, and decommissioning a system. Example: a con- struction activity will involve engineers, contractors, and inspection personnel and can involve several procedures and construction specifications: escorting construction equipment on the airside, signaling the construction area, specific procedures to mitigate FOD, and so forth. Figure 7 shows a graphical representation of the interactions among these elements. An example of a system is depicted in Figure 8. Construction is taking place on the airfield. In this case, the system is daytime construction work (replacement of drainage pipes) taking place close to the intersection between Taxiway D and the Runway 5 arrival end.