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Safety Risk Management 69 Some of these processes can be used in combination. For example, a change analysis due to construction may use a "construction safety checklist" to evaluate potential hazards dur- ing construction. Improvised processes for hazard identification are unacceptable safety management practices. For example, simply telling airport staff to identify hazards will not work unless proper training is provided on how to identify and report hazards. Recording Hazards All identified hazards should be assigned a hazard number and be recorded in a hazard log. The log should contain a description of each hazard, its consequences, the assessed risk in terms of likelihood and severity, and any required mitigation measures. It should be updated as new hazards are identified and proposals for mitigation are introduced. Table 7 provides suggested information to include in a hazard log. Common Airport Hazards Table 8 presents several hazard categories present at airports. Each category is further broken down into specific components of the category. The third column provides some general conse- quences associated with the specific hazard category and its components. The list is not intended to be exhaustive, but to provide some helpful information that can be used to identify additional categories, components, and potential consequences. 5.4 Determine Risk One of the best methods to identify risk associated to a hazard is a brainstorming session. Per- sonnel involved in day-to-day operations are generally very familiar with "what can go wrong" situations. Another method is through lessons learned that are usually shared through industry publications and conferences or workshops. An airport operator might have identified the storage of unsecured containers as a hazard on the cargo ramp. Risk associated with this hazard is a gust of wind or aircraft jet blast setting an empty container in motion and striking a passing aircraft or person. Table 7. Hazard log table. Expected Risk Rating Risk Rating Hazard Potential Prior to Responsibility Review Closed Date Hazard Location After No. Consequences Control for Action Date Out Date Control Measures Measures

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70 Safety Management Systems for Airports Table 8. Common airport hazards. A - Hazard Category B - Main Components C - Potential Consequences Jet blast Operating aircraft jet engines Blowing over vehicles, equipment, objects, particularly in the ramp area Displacing people, particularly in the ramp area FOD FOD management, maintenance Jet blast of FOD striking people, aircraft, equipment, or and construction activities, airside infrastructure activities, pavement deterioration, FOD being ingested into the engines of operating aircraft aircraft operations and maintenance FOD damaging the aircraft during operations (e.g., accident with Concord aircraft) Runway usage ATC, aircraft, vehicles Runway incursions Insufficient runway distance available for landing or taking off Wrong runway usage Aircraft undershoots and runway excursions Lack of or misleading Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) Taxiway routings Traffic control, weather conditions, Routing errors with aircraft and vehicle collisions communication, markings Runway incursions Low visibility Incorrect phraseology Human errors Deficient marking and signing Airside ground traffic Traffic control, visibility and adverse Vehicles and aircraft running over people weather conditions, communications, Collisions in the non-movement areas equipment maintenance Runway incursions and collision with aircraft Speeding of ground vehicles Poor equipment maintenance and malfunctions Human errors Incorrect phraseology Winter services Procedures, equipment, training, Lack or incorrect de-icing procedures may disable aircraft procedures (de-icing, materials, poor operation conditions, ability to fly anti-icing and snow timing, monitoring of surface conditions, Improper snow removal or anti-icing may lead to improper removal) reporting of surface conditions braking capability on the runway with risk of overruns and veer-offs Asymmetric drag during operations may cause veer-offs Poor braking performance causing collisions in movement and non-movement areas Lack of sufficient materials Equipment coordination disruption Delay to employ safety measures Low runway friction Pilot unawareness of surface conditions Rescue and fire Deficient ARFF facilities and Improper training can delay rescue and firefighting fighting equipment, lack of appropriate Lack of appropriate access routes may delay operations access routes, poor planning and Inoperative equipment can restrict ARFF capabilities training, lack of appropriate materials Insufficient equipment and materials can restrict capability and protective equipment, poor Poor equipment maintenance may jeopardize effectiveness maintenance, poor emergency Improper protective equipment may restrict rescue and awareness firefighting operations Level of protection lower than that required will restrict capability during major accidents Lack of water rescue capability at airports close to great stretches of water or swampy areas will restrict rescue capabilities Inappropriate facilities that provide for rest, exercise, drill, training, etc. will pose restriction to staff working at the fire station Delay to initiate operations will restrict occupant survivability Poor communications procedures and equipment readiness will restrict ARFF capability

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Safety Risk Management 71 Table 8. (Continued). A - Hazard Category B - Main Components C - Potential Consequences Crisis and Planning and training, coordination, Delay to respond to emergencies and decrease in contingency communications, equipment, survivability management procedures, command Delay to isolate the accident area (medical, disabled Delay to remove accident obstacles aircraft removal, etc.) Delay to inform other pilots and operators Lack of coordination Incorrect phraseology Lack of appropriate equipment and procedures Poor alerting services Dated contact information Loss of operational control Unavailable resources Command structure decay and delay Special events (air Coordination, security, procedures Damage to aircraft shows, etc.) for non-standard operations, Loss of aircraft control during maneuvers spectator proximity to aircraft and Runway incursions operations, spectator unawareness FOD and jet blast consequences of risks, communication, FOD, marking Collisions and barricading of restricted areas, Damage to equipment new ignition sources Fire Vandalism Poor event performance Loss of public relations opportunity Other vehicle, aircraft, staff, and spectator accidents Adverse Training and experience for adverse Visual aid and electronic device malfunction or environmental weather conditions, preparation and destruction conditions (night, low communication, visibility and lighting Aircraft and ground vehicle collisions visibility, adverse wind conditions, runway surface conditions, Increased aerial and surface condition hazards conditions, approach conditions Aircraft and vehicles running over airport workers and precipitation) passengers Aircraft overruns, veer-offs, and undershoots Reduced emergency response capability Airport development, Impact of construction on operations, Breakdown of construction equipment construction, and impact of operations on construction, Jet blast affecting construction area maintenance coordination (air traffic, apron FOD activities management, security, etc.), access Runway incursions routing, communication (e.g., NOTAMs), Malfunction of NAVAIDS FOD and dust control, construction Damage to aircraft signage, temporary airfield signage, Pilots, ATC, airport workers, and contractor unaware of interference with operations and construction and changed operation conditions NAVAIDS, off-peak construction, Accidental interference with existing installations construction worker training and Equipment, stockpile, and construction location within awareness, safety and emergency airfield safety areas plans, construction quality, construction Material stockpiles or construction equipment equipment maintenance, construction obstructing the view of ATC OSH compliance, location of existing Permitted times for construction not strictly followed installations Displacement of construction equipment and materials by prop wash, jet blast, or wind Edge and threshold lights for closed portions of a runway not properly disconnected or covered to prevent pilots use of the areas Wildlife hazards (birds Fencing, wildlife detection systems and Bird and wildlife strikes to aircraft and vehicles and other wildlife) procedures, deterrent devices, wildlife Loss of aircraft and vehicle control management plan, training and Improper use of wildlife deterrent devices equipment for wildlife control, Damage to perimeter fences minimization of attractants (through Poor field monitoring and reporting disposal of food and airport trash, Poor wildlife control garbage receptacles, and airport zoning) Security issues Access control Runway incursions Vandalism Terrorism (continued on next page)

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72 Safety Management Systems for Airports Table 8. (Continued). A - Hazard Category B - Main Components C - Potential Consequences Visual and non-visual Adequacy and reliability, interference, Inaccurate approach and landing aids for approach runway approach area updates Unavailability of NAVAIDS and landing Collision with obstacles Aircraft overruns and undershoots Inspection and survey Frequency, personnel training, Failure to identify and report existing hazards activities (internal and equipment Runway incursions external) Failure in communication procedures Use of incorrect phraseology Equipment malfunction Protection of NAVAIDS Fencing, vigilance, maintenance, Inoperative or damaged equipment and related sites zoning, signage Interference to NAVAIDS from new developments in the area Aircraft collisions Failure to ensure a secure and safe area Airport closure Obstacles Signage, monitoring, awareness of Aircraft collision with obstacles pilots, and ATC Vehicle and equipment collisions Presence of unreported obstacles Change in obstacle condition Inaccurate location and elevation of obstacle Fuel handling Operating procedures, spillage control Spillage procedures, proximity of ignition Misuse sources, supervision and training, Fire equipment compatibility, fuel storage Contamination Damage to asphalt pavements Environmental impacts Improper handling and spillage control Procedural violations Vapor inhalation and ingestion Downtime of resources Hazardous materials Handling procedures, spillage control Spillage handling procedures, supervision and training, Environmental impacts storage Damage to equipment Improper handling and spillage control Procedural violations Human injuries Downtime periods Airport closure Passenger handling Handling and control procedures, Vehicles striking passengers supervision, monitoring, operation Slips and trips of passenger bridges, operation of Unawareness of airport dangers buses, evacuation procedures Inadvertent or deliberate damage to aircraft and equipment Improper use of safe routes Running aircraft engines Speeding of passenger buses Passenger deviating from their designated routes Communications Communication procedures, equipment Miscommunication maintenance, training Incorrect use of communication devices Incorrect phraseology Impact on operations and emergency services Equipment failure Loss of coordination and control Operator error Loss of airport operations capabilities Airport reporting Responsibility, up-to-date information Improper notification and update procedures (Airport Publication Delay in operations Information [AIP], Change in conditions NOTAMs, etc.) Failure to publish NOTAM Runway incursions Collisions

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Safety Risk Management 73 Table 8. (Continued). A - Hazard Category B - Main Components C - Potential Consequences Apron management Airport rules and regulations, SOPs, Aircraft assigned to incorrect gate access control, gate assignment, Collision between aircraft and vehicles ramp congestion, turnaround times, Inadequate lighting, glare, or confusing lights airport infrastructure, technology Non-enforcement of rules, regulations, and SOPs available, and maintenance Lack of centralized and uniform management Poor, misleading or non-standard markings Poor supervision of ramp activities Deficient coordination with ATC, tenants, and service providers Low capacity of infrastructure Malfunction of ground control equipment Aircraft stands are not serviceable, clean, or free of obstructions Passenger bridge not retracted or correctly parked Non-availability of emergency equipment Lack of functional check of the passenger bridge before utilization Improper use of apron real estate and reduced capability Delay of operations Ground operations Airport rules and regulations, Propeller blades striking people or equipment (marshalling, equipment parking, SOPs, supervision, Jet blast displacing materials and equipment, and catering, towing, pilot blind area, personal protection striking people baggage handling, equipment (PPE), training, People and objects being sucked by jet engine intakes apron bridges, etc.) self-maneuvering operations Unsafe aircraft towing Pilot cannot perceive presence of equipment and/or people Vehicles striking aircraft and/or people Falls and falling objects Inappropriate aircraft chocking Activities start before aircraft engine shuts down Hot aircraft brakes Untrained aircraft Marshaller Use of non-standard marshalling signals Improper passenger bridge operation Lack of emergency stop procedures Improper parking location by vehicles and aircraft Training and licensing Competency training and evaluation, Poor training access requirements for movement, Non-qualified workers performing activities at the ramp non-movement areas Violations of rules and regulations Failure to perform duties Incorrect execution of procedures Infrastructure, Pavement management, marking, Deteriorated pavement pavements (FOD, and lighting, aircraft arresting systems FOD runway friction, Inappropriate Pavement Condition Number (PCN) roughness, pavement Poor runway surface friction condition, contaminated condition) surface (rubber build-up, ponding, ice, snow, dirt), Safety areas ungrooved pavement Markings Signs Uneven or non-smooth pavement may damage aircraft Lighting Electrical equipment systems Engineered Bumps, potholes, rutting Materials Excessive difference in elevation between adjacent areas Arresting Systems Malfunction of lighting system (EMAS) Missing, unclear, or deteriorated markings Lack of maintenance of aircraft arresting systems Occupational health Equipment, procedures Improper procedures and safety Lack of PPE Helicopter operations Segregation, location, and type of Helicopter blades striking people, vehicles, and equipment operations Rotor wash displacing objects Equipment Airport ground equipment, visual aids, Disruption of operations maintenance and NAVAIDS, surface movement Runway incursions conditions guidance and control Runway excursions and undershoots Collisions Aircraft and vehicles striking people (continued on next page)