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8 Safety Management Systems for Airports initiatives to improve safety. SMS provides a link between the safety professionals (focused on accident prevention) and the operators (focused on production). This teaming is vital for safety improvement. In the future, it is likely that the FAA will require certain airports to have an SMS. However, whether required or not, it is still a good idea for every airport to have one. SMS can reduce costs and keep up the airport's good reputation. SMS can help develop a positive safety culture and reduce the rate of fatal accidents in the avi- ation industry. 2.1 What Is SMS? According to FAA AC 150/5200-37 (2007),(1) SMS is "the formal, top-down business-like approach to managing safety risk. It includes systematic procedures, practices, and policies for the management of safety (including safety risk management, safety policy, safety assurance, and safety promotion)." SMS is a tool to translate an organization's concerns about safety into effec- tive actions to mitigate hazards. It is a documented system that encompasses the following: A safety policy incorporating responsibilities for everyone working at the airport and the air- port's safety objectives Effective decision tools for managers when dealing with safety issues A program for identifying training needs, training, assessing competency, and keeping records of training performed A framework for involving employees in the management of safety The collection, analysis, and reporting of safety performance data The identification of hazards in the airport The assessment of the risk that the hazards identified pose to airport activities The elimination or control of identified risks An evaluation of the effectiveness of control measures Arrangements for emergency preparedness and response Arrangements to improve safety awareness and to promote safety Documentation of meetings, decisions, actions, and other SMS-related activities or processes Systems for monitoring the safety performance of the airport Systems for the reporting and investigating accidents/incidents Processes that elevate safety reporting and safety decision making to top management levels of the organization Other aspects common to management systems, such as safety committees, document and records control, internal auditing, and management review meetings According to R. Gonzlez (ICAO), "A rapidly expanding industry and its increasing complexity make it difficult to sustain an approach to safety exclusively based upon regulatory compliance. It is essential to complement the regulatory approach to safety with a proactive approach. SMS is also the most effective way of responding to the need for results-based supervision with a relatively small workforce."(9)