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CHAPTER 6 SMS Operation Once the SMS is in place, it needs to be managed; this includes on-going monitoring of system performance, as well as the development and implementation of plans for continuous improvement. On-going management will ensure that the SMS and associated processes are working to improve the level of safety. This should include setting new objectives, continually running the SMS processes, and developing and implementing a plan for improvement initiatives over a given period (e.g., for the next year). Use the outputs from other elements of the system to evaluate how your SMS is performing (performance measurement, management review, etc.) Once you have identified opportunities for improvement, develop plans to achieve these improvements. This chapter was designed to help you with the SMS operation. You will identify the major tasks associated with SMS activities and find out more details about the role of an SMS Manager. Moreover, this chapter contains basic concepts and practical guidance on the following: Typical tasks for the SMS operation Safety culture and how to promote it Useful techniques for safety meetings How to establish a safety reporting system Techniques for accident and incident investigations Procedures for internal safety and SMS assessments Guidance for safety performance monitoring Basic guidelines to establish an SMS training program 6.1 Major Tasks for the SMS Operation The SMS Manager will be responsible for running the SMS operation. Depending on the size and complexity of your airport, this person may be a full-time SMS Manager, may or may not have staff to support the SMS activities, or may have additional functions at the airport. The SMS Manager should guarantee the execution of the tasks indicated in Table 17. (Note that these tasks are related to the four SMS pillars and the respective elements described in Chap- ter 2.) This list is not exhaustive; however, many of the tasks are simple to execute, particularly at smaller airports. 6.2 Safety Culture and Promotion Effective safety management requires more than a safety office and safety procedures. The safest organizations have something that is difficult to describe and quantify but, when it is there, it is perceptible and obvious. It is the way that the organization and the people within it 89

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90 Safety Management Systems for Airports Table 17. Major tasks for SMS operation. SMS Tasks to be carried out or coordinated by the SMS Manager Pillar Element Be alert to any change in the airport organizational structure and its impact on the SMS structure Organizational Structure Be sure that all the interfaces among the stakeholder activities work toward Policies and the SMS operation Objectives Documentation Make sure that all the documentation is managed as required by the SMS Coordination of the Constantly evaluate the interfaces between AEP, airlines, and ATC Emergency Plan emergency plans. Assist with recommendation to improve the AEP. Continuously check the compliance of the procedures for collecting, recording, acting, monitoring and providing feedback on hazards and mitigation actions, considering both reactive and proactive approaches Collect, compile, and check the effective use of the mandatory, voluntary, and confidential reporting systems, according to the airport policy Hazard Identification Create adequate environment for the compliance of the reporting systems Continuously improve the reporting systems to make them simple, confidential, accessible, informative, and with rapid feedback Collect, organize, and store hazard data and safety reports Analyze, consolidate essential data, and provide feedback on hazard reports Coordinate and carry out risk assessments with multidisciplinary groups, and help delineate risk mitigation strategies Be sure that all the activities related to hazard identification, risk assessment, Risk Assessment and mitigation processes are developed according to the processes defined in the SMS documentation Safety Risk Delineate procedures to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation actions Corrective Actions and Management Coordinate continuous monitoring of identified hazards and the Monitoring effectiveness of mitigation actions Ensure the reporting processes are available and working properly Reporting Systems Assist the Accountable Executive with making sure the airport complies with the established reporting policy Coordinate the internal investigations to determine root causes for Internal Safety occurrences or events that are not required to be investigated by Investigations organizations outside the airport (e.g., NTSB, FAA) Constantly analyze available safety information obtained during the SMS Improving SOPs operation to determine the need to create or improve SOPs Assist with the creation and improvement of SOPs Analyze the need to conduct assessments on the impact of future changes in the airport environment such as construction, introduction of new Assessing the Impact of equipment, introduction of new regulatory requirements and processes, Changes changes in security, reorganization of air traffic control, changes to the airport organization, etc. Monitor risk control actions taken Ensure that the airport collects data for all performance indicators defined in the SMS documentation Assist and conduct trend analysis for each performance indicator Performance Monitoring Monitor SPI trends and evaluate safety performance to suggest actions Identify the hazard(s) behind performance indicator trends that point out safety deficiencies Identify and assist identifying appropriate potential performance indicators Plan and coordinate internal assessments according to the SMS requirements, help prepare checklists, coordinate the organization of the Safety teams Assurance When necessary, help with the analysis and compilation of the information Assist with the Identification of areas that need more attention Ensure that every airport department receives a summary of the SMS Internal SMS Assessment assessment Use safety surveys to check the SMS operation in terms of problem areas or bottlenecks in daily operations, perceptions, and opinions of operational personnel, areas of dissent, or confusion Ensure that recommended actions that have been approved are adequately implemented

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SMS Operation 91 Table 17. (Continued). SMS Tasks to be carried out or coordinated by the SMS Manager Pillar Element Ensure that adequate information is provided for the Management Review Advise the airport high level administrative personnel before, during, and Safety after the Management Review Assurance Put in practice the strategic plan for safety improvement developed by the Management Review Management Review Monitor the strategic plan for safety improvement Ensure that all staff levels receive adequate indoctrination and recurrent training, including airport stakeholders when it is the case Identify the areas most in need of additional training Training and Education Identify the necessary resources to meet training needs Ensure the SMS training program is implemented Assist measuring SMS training effectiveness Develop formal means for safety communication within the SMS environment Make sure that employees are involved or consulted in the development Safety Safety Communication and review of policies and procedures implemented to manage risks Promotion Make sure that safety information is disseminated throughout the organization Create processes to assess the effectiveness of safety communication Ensure the application of the concepts behind the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check and Act) Periodically revise the SMS self-assessment and find out areas where improvement Continuous is necessary Improvement Check all regular, periodic, and planned reviews regarding safety processes and performance Monitor the decisions and actions aimed at improving safety to evaluate their effectiveness Keep close coordination with the SMS Champion if there is one Help the line managers with their safety programs Coordination of safety items in meeting agendas Participate in the airport safety meetings Other Tasks Develop, assist, and coordinate safety promotion initiatives Assist with obtaining the necessary resources to carry out mitigation actions, training, and other tasks associated with SMS Ensure the necessary resources are allocated to the SMS operation behave--their safety culture(29),(30). Safety culture is not an isolated SMS pillar or element, but it is an essential feature of any effective SMS and should permeate the whole organization to bind its SMS pillars. All of the airport SMS pillars and elements contribute toward a strong safety culture. It is not the intent of this section to repeat the discussion of these elements, but instead to focus on spe- cific aspects, features, programs, and activities that are aimed specifically at enhancing safety cul- ture. This section describes what safety culture is and how it can be promoted and enhanced at your airport. Building a strong safety culture requires key organizational activities that promote a high level of risk awareness on the part of the employees and a sense of personal responsibility for reduc- ing risk. Senior management commitment and demonstrated leadership in promoting safety are essential ingredients in the enhancement of a strong safety culture. General Concepts and Principles The safety culture concept comes from decades of research on how accidents happen. Before the 1970s, investigations focused on technological failures, adverse weather conditions, and human errors as root causes of aviation accidents. Eventually, investigators and researchers

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92 Safety Management Systems for Airports began to understand that errors could be triggered by a number of additional factors, such as communications problems, decision-making issues, and lack of effective coordination within the organization. In other words, there are often latent causes of errors that are attributable to the organizational environment and that make individual errors more likely. Elements of Safety Culture It is important not to confuse non-punitive with accountability. People must remain accountable for their actions, even in a non-punitive environment. According to James Reason(31), a safety researcher from the United Kingdom, safety culture has five key characteristics: it is informed, reporting, learning, just, and flexible. In an informed culture, workers understand the hazards and risks involved in their tasks, which are the inherent dangers of their working environment. They also understand how their work may have an impact on the safety of other tasks and of the airport in general. Employees continuously monitor operations to identify new or previously unrecognized hazards. In a reporting culture, employees and other stakeholders are encouraged to report safety concerns. They do so without fear of being punished or ridiculed. When safety concerns are reported, they are analyzed, appropriate action is taken, and feedback is always provided. Note that it is advisable to seek Legal counsel when establishing a reporting system that is intended to be confidential and/or non-punitive, as it needs to be fully compliant with applicable laws. In a just culture, management recognizes that most errors are unintentional and makes an effort to understand and correct the conditions of work that make errors more likely. However, when errors are the result of a blatant disregard of rules, malicious intent or gross negligence, punishment is deliberate and fair. For this to work, airport employees must clearly understand what is punishable and what is not. In a flexible culture, employees do not blindly apply procedures. They are capable of identi- fying the intent of the procedures and understanding the safety envelope. They are therefore able to adapt to changing situations while respecting the safety goals. They are also effective, with appropriate training, in responding to the introduction of new technologies or equipment. A learning culture is one that is characterized by a questioning attitude aimed at continuous improvement. Employees at all levels constantly ask themselves and each other: "how could we do this better?" All employees are encouraged and empowered to develop and apply their own experience and knowledge to enhance airport safety. Lessons from errors and incidents are iden- tified, shared, and learned. This means that lessons identified are analyzed and that, when required, risk control actions are taken. It also means that management keeps personnel updated on safety issues and risk control actions taken. What Does a Strong Safety Culture Look Like? Safety culture is difficult to quantify, but the following examples provide an idea of what would be expected in an organization with a strong safety culture compared with a weak safety culture. These are examples only; safety culture characteristics can take several forms depending on the organization. Some typical signs of strong and weak safety cultures are depicted in Table 18.

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SMS Operation 93 Table 18. Typical signs of safety culture. In a strong safety culture In a weak safety culture Employees are proactive; they continually Employees never question procedures identify unsafe situations and make an they know to be outdated or recommend effort to correct them before they become new procedures that are safer and a real problem. more effective. Employees feel that safety is their Employees believe that safety is the responsibility and that they have the responsibility of the supervisors or the power to do something about it. safety officers. There are clear policies and procedures There is a safety policy but most people that spell out expectations for safety, and think it is lip-service and window dressing. the employees understand and believe in them. Employees truly understand the risks Employees accept procedures without involved in their work. really understanding why. They do not understand all the risks. Proactive risk assessment is an integral Risk is only evaluated after something part of the way the organization manages bad has happened. business, before incidents or accidents happen. The behavior of employees reflects what Employees and managers say one thing, the safety policy proclaims. but their actions reflect a different belief. Personnel receive feedback on safety Safety issues may be analyzed but issues and safety reports. employees are never really told what was done to address the issue. Managers and supervisors promote a Through their actions and behavior, questioning attitude regarding safety supervisors and managers let it be issues on the part of all employees. known that questioning management decisions is not a good thing. Safety is an integral part of operations Safety is seen as the responsibility of a management and line managers are safety office, and their interventions are clearly responsible. often perceived as a nuisance to operations. Upper management takes an active role Senior managers delegate their safety in safety activities and promotion. functions to a junior manager. They may show occasional interest, but people know that safety is only important as long as it does not affect operations. All employees believe that safety does Employees really think safety efforts are OK not have to come at the cost of as long as the cost is not too high, or as long productivity or profit. as it is not THEIR operation that is affected. Safety goals are set and all employees There are no detailed safety goals other work toward their achievement. than very general statements. Safety is an integral part of the training There is no specific training on safety that all employees receive. management processes and safety is barely mentioned in the existing training courses. Errors are understood as unintentional, but Errors are treated unevenly and "suitable willful violations are not tolerated. punishment" depends on the manager involved. Employees know and agree on what is The treatment of errors is inconsistent. acceptable and unacceptable behavior. The organization takes safety initiatives The organization waits for the regulator that go beyond strict regulatory to make a safety requirement mandatory requirements. before it commits any effort to new safety initiatives.

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94 Safety Management Systems for Airports How Can You Tell If Your Organization Has a Strong Safety Culture? Accurately assessing the strength of the safety culture within an airport organization is a dif- ficult task, but it provides invaluable information to senior managers on the need for enhance- ment. It should be done on a periodic basis. Safety culture evaluations can be (a) simple and internal or (b) complex and independent. The level of effort depends on the degree of accuracy required and on the desired depth of information. There are several methods for evaluating safety culture within an organization and a multi- tude of guides on the subject. Four examples are presented: Intuitive method Checklist Internal survey External audit Intuitive Method We know what the culture of our airport is. We do not always ask ourselves, but if we stop and think, we can easily determine whether our organization has a strong or a weak safety culture. However, this intuitive method is not very objective, especially if we are part of the problem. It also relies on our perception, and if communication within the organization is an issue, our per- ception obviously will be biased. Nevertheless, asking whether our safety culture is strong or weak and why is a good initiative and demonstrates a willingness to identify and correct weak- nesses within the organization. Checklist Approach Using a checklist-based approach toward the five key characteristics of a strong safety culture can provide a more objective assessment. Table 19 contains checklist questions for each safety culture element. If you answer "no" to more than one question, or if the answer is not immedi- Table 19. Checklist approach for safety culture assessment. Characteristics Question Informed Do employees really understand the risks associated with their job tasks and environment? Reporting Do employees report their safety concerns? Are employees willing and able to talk to management about their safety concerns? Do I, as a manager, really know what these concerns are? Do we share safety information throughout our organization? Just Do we accept that we should learn from errors, and not be predisposed to punish when mistakes happen? Are we clear about what constitutes an infraction that deserves some kind of punishment? Flexible Do employees apply procedures intelligently (or follow them blindly)? Learning Do we really ask ourselves and our employees: "is there a better way of doing what we do, from a safety perspective?"

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SMS Operation 95 ately clear, there is room for improvement. You could also use the examples of a strong safety culture provided in Table 18 as a basis for comparison. Internal Survey Internal surveys are an excellent tool for measuring the attitude of airport employees toward safety. When properly designed and executed, a survey can provide a quantitative score that relates to the strength of the safety culture in the organization. However, surveys are complex. Responses can be biased by the way the questions are asked. Respondents must feel free to respond accu- rately, and they must also feel that the questions do not unfairly target them. Asking the right ques- tions is an art best mastered by professionals. For example, the question "Do you feel comfortable sharing safety concerns with management?" puts the respondent on the spot, and the response provided may not accurately reflect reality. A more objective response may be obtained by ask- ing: "Do your co-workers feel comfortable sharing safety concerns with management?" Because of the complexity involved in designing the questionnaire, to get the right and true answers, it is recommended to have professional assistance to develop a survey that provides effective feedback. Table 20 provides an example of the type of statements that may be submitted in a safety cul- ture survey. It is based on actual surveys conducted in the U.S. and abroad. Using computers facilitates the gathering and analysis of data. However, paper surveys are quite adequate and often are able to target a wider audience. External Audit External audits usually are conducted by experts through a combination of questionnaires, interviews, and on-the-job observations. This is the most objective and accurate way of evaluat- ing the strength of an organization's safety culture. Several firms are available to conduct such audits. In some cases, it is possible to solicit the help of like-minded organizations that are known to have a strong safety culture to conduct a comparative evaluation. One of the advantages of this approach is that it fosters the mutual exchange of safety information and healthy competi- tion between like-minded organizations. Promoting and Enhancing Safety Culture The question remains: How do I promote and improve the safety culture within my own organization? Culture is equivalent to a set of shared values held by the employees, the management, and the airport organization in general. Improving culture therefore means changing these values. However, changing individual and organizational values is not easy. Indeed, attempting to act directly on values is most likely to be met with cynicism, resistance and, ultimately, failure. Changing values is a long process that can only be achieved by first changing practices. There- fore, safety culture promotion efforts should focus on altering practices, in combination with a demonstrable and visible change in management attitude and leadership. Establishing an effec- tive SMS will assist in this process, but it is not sufficient. We can distinguish two types of activities needed to promote and enhance safety culture: safety culture leadership and safety culture integration. Safety culture leadership aims to promote safety culture within each branch of an airport organization--e.g., operations, maintenance, engineer- ing, emergency, security, human resources, finance, and information technology. Safety culture integration seeks to break the silos that often exist within large organizations and that constitute an obstacle to the effective exchange of safety information and management of interfacial safety issues (which are some of the most prevalent safety concerns for an airport operation). There are many measures and activities that can help to strengthen safety culture. In practice, and for the purpose of this guidebook, we will consider the initiatives listed in Table 21.

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96 Safety Management Systems for Airports Table 20. Example survey on safety culture. Your position: Management Supervisor Non-supervisory operational or tech staff Non-supervisory admin staff Other _______________________________ Rate each statement by selecting or circling the corresponding level of agreement to what you typically experience on your job. 1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Not sure, 4 = Agree, 5 = Strongly Agree Management and supervisors regularly promote safety. 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Management and supervisors visibly sponsor and encourage safety initiatives and practices, for example, by asking for, and being open to, suggestions from all staff on how to improve safety. My co-workers feel comfortable sharing safety concerns. 1 2 3 4 5 N/A We always deal with our safety concerns in a friendly manner and my co- workers don't get upset if someone points out that something is not being done properly regarding the overall safety. My co-workers receive enough training to do their jobs safely. 1 2 3 4 5 N/A The training that we receive makes us feel safe when we are doing our jobs. In addition, we received indoctrination training on safety immediately after we were hired. My Department's vision and mission for safety are clear. 1 2 3 4 5 N/A We all know and understand where management stands when it comes to safety, and what it is trying to gain. My co-workers receive feedback from reports, suggestions, and concerns 1 2 3 4 5 N/A on airport safety. Any time that we make a report or suggestion, or present an idea on how to improve safety, somebody gets back to us on what is going to be done about it, even if nothing will be done. My co-workers are informed of the lessons learned from safety reviews and 1 2 3 4 5 N/A investigations. We are always informed of the conclusions of accident and incident investigations so that we can learn from them. Airport safety issues are effectively communicated between departments. 1 2 3 4 5 N/A All information about safety issues is passed on to other departments, so that all are aware of them, regardless of which department experienced them. My co-workers respond positively when they receive safety reminders. 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Unsafe conditions that cannot be immediately corrected are brought to 1 2 3 4 5 N/A the attention of management, or those who can do something about them. When we notice an unsafe situation/procedure that we cannot correct, we inform the appropriate person to resolve it. Employee Empowerment Empowering employees means giving them the ability to influence their environment. Expe- rience with aviation and other industries has demonstrated clearly that empowering employees improves morale, productivity, and efficiency in all aspects of their work, not only with respect to safety. With respect to SMS, empowering employees will lead to their involvement in the develop- ment of SMS at the outset. This last point is important. Many organizations feel that it is more

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SMS Operation 97 Table 21. Improving safety culture. Safety culture leadership Safety culture integration Employees empowerment Communication and marketing Demonstrated management Integrated training leadership Organizational performance Incentive programs measurement Non-punitive reporting Special events Partnering efficient to develop SMS and then market it to employees; however, this is less effective. Getting employees involved from the start saves time because it leads to an early "buy-in" and minimizes the risk of later resistance to change. Some initiatives that could be considered when fostering employee empowerment include the following: Form a committee with broad vertical and horizontal representation to help define the cor- porate policy (which still needs to be finalized, endorsed, signed, and promoted by the senior executive), help define the non-punitive reporting policy and processes, develop corporate safety targets, etc. Ensure broad representation on the team(s) responsible for analyzing safety reports and pro- posing mitigation control actions. Get representatives from the major groups involved in the development of risk control action plans. Be responsive to employees' suggestions and ensure that they get feedback and recognition from supervisors and managers for their safety ideas and initiatives. Demonstrated Management Leadership The influence of management's attitude over the entire organizational culture often is grossly Safety culture underestimated. Without effective and visible leadership from the top, the SMS will be nothing starts at the but a nice binder on a shelf. top! Leadership is demonstrated through highly visible actions that confirm to the employees that management is really committed to safety and to all aspects of the SMS. How this is done depends on the type and style of leadership. There is no "cookbook" recipe, but the following are exam- ples of initiatives that can be considered, modified, and customized to assist airport managers in promoting and integrating a strong safety culture within the organization. Make Sure the Resources are Available to Achieve the Goals. The old saying of "do more with less" is not effective and sends the wrong message. If safety goals and programs are estab- lished, resources must be there to support them. Experience shows that the return on safety investments is well worth the initial cost. Attend Safety Meetings. Senior managers should take a genuine interest in safety meetings and should attend them, at all levels. Clearly, senior managers cannot always be present at all safety meetings throughout a large organization, but their presence at some will send a strong message to employees that they care. However, token presence (such as protocol-opening by uninterested managers) should be avoided. Similarly, ceremonial attendance (i.e., special provi- sions made because the "big boss" is coming to the meeting) reduces the effectiveness of this par- ticipation. Ideally, attendance by senior managers should not be subject to any special provision. Walk About. Managers often are perceived by employees as decision makers who conduct the show from behind their desk and do not really know what is happening on the "shop floor."

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98 Safety Management Systems for Airports One easy way to break this perception is for senior managers to take periodic walks around the airside operations areas. This should not be restricted to the operations manager or others for whom this type of presence is expected, but should also involve all other members of the man- agement team. "Walk abouts" are a great way to find out what is really happening. Asking ques- tions and discussing issues with the operational staff at their place of work conveys a great sense of care and commitment. However, beware of "ceremonial" tours or inspections by senior man- agers, which are announced and turned into a special event, for which employees may have to prepare to be on their best behavior. If safety issues are brought up during such tours, ensure that feedback is provided on what management intends to do about it, and that the feedback reaches the concerned employees. Communication with Employees. In periodic addresses to the staff, in writing or verbally, the senior manager should include safety and safety targets as a prominent item. This should be system- atic, constructive, and positive. This systematic inclusion of safety in senior manager communica- tions should extend to management meetings, airport operations committee meetings, and the like. Incentive Programs Safety culture is very much based on the concept that good behavior should be encouraged as much as or even more frequently than bad behavior is punished. Incentive programs are one way to encourage good behavior. Incentive programs can take several forms, including praise, recognition, or even monetary rewards. The precise nature of your incentive program depends very much on the type of culture and size of your organization. Not all the following suggestions will work for every organization. Most will need to be adapted to suit each airport's "personality." Safety Employee of the Month. Under this type of program, one or more employees are rec- ognized every month (or other frequency) for their ideas, suggestions, or contributions to safety within the organization. The reward can range from having the employees' names published on the intranet or public billboard system, to having employee photos displayed in the airport or in the airport's newsletter, magazine, or other suitable medium, to monetary rewards or gift cer- tificates. This program can be enhanced further by having employees nominate candidates with justification and involving a selection committee composed of a reasonable cross-section of employees from all the airport's sections and departments. Safety Team of the Month. This initiative is similar to the preceding one but focuses on teams rather than individuals, reinforcing the concept of teamwork. It promotes the idea that teams that work together win. Competition. Competitions can be organized around a safety theme. As with the previous cases, these can be individual or team competitions, for example: Safety logo design competition Safety poster design competition Problem solving competitions Best article on safety, with the winning article to be published in a prominent magazine or newspaper Care should be exercised in developing incentive programs that focus on lowering accident or incident statistics, because this can lead to underreporting.

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SMS Operation 99 Non-Punitive Safety Reporting Non-punitive reporting is a key element of SMS and is discussed in Section 6.4 of this guide- book. A detailed explanation is not repeated here, but it is important to understand that this ele- ment is potentially one of the greatest "killers" of a strong safety culture. Building employee confidence and trust in a system that encourages reporting of even their own mistakes, without fear of reprisal, takes time and unfaltering efforts. Destroying this trust takes 1 minute. Example of a non-punitive reporting system failure: In an airport that prided itself on its program to implement non-punitive report- ing, one employee immediately self-reported after making an honest mistake in the operations area. For reasons that are complex, but unimportant given the perception that ensued, the employee was fired. Regardless of the real reason for the firing, the perception among other employees resulted in a dramatic reduction in the reporting of safety hazards. A properly designed safety suggestion program can also be incorporated into the reporting system. It is important that the airport provide feedback for each suggestion submitted. Communication and Marketing Some communication and marketing initiatives can be aimed specifically at integrating safety culture across the entire organization. As with the other initiatives previously mentioned, the following examples need to be adjusted to fit the size and characteristics of each airport. Safety Newsletter. Safety newsletters published on a regular basis are a great way of promot- ing safety issues across the organization. They also provide a means of informing external stake- holders, which further enhances the integration of safety cultures. Safety Page. Many airports have a magazine published monthly or quarterly, or have access to another type of trade publication through which they can publish articles and information. One idea is to establish a "safety column," where safety information is discussed, new safety ini- tiatives are presented, and winners of incentive programs are reported. Newspaper and Media. When significant safety programs or projects are initiated, media infor- mation focusing on the airport's effort is an effective way to develop employee pride in the project. Safety Posters. Posters are a passive training method used to remind employees of a hazard, precaution, or idea (see Figure 12). Posters must be current and have a message applicable to the audience. Change them frequently so they don't become part of the dcor. For staff members who have access to computers, a brief safety message on the airport intranet homepage may be more effective than posters. Establish a "Safety Promotion Team." Creating a team of representatives from several levels and sections can greatly enhance not only the integration of subcultures but also the effectiveness of the safety promotion program. School Involvement. In some small communities, where the airport occupies a prominent place in the economy, getting schools involved through, for example, essay competitions, airport visits, or other activities can enhance the sense of community among employees (who may work in different departments but whose children all attend the same school).

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100 Safety Management Systems for Airports Figure 12. Safety posters (courtesy of Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore). Integrated Training Training should be recognized as a great potential safety culture integrator. Many traditional training programs focus on functional groups or levels. For example, there may be a leadership course for managers, a safety course for duty managers, or something similar. Strictly functional or single-level courses tend to reinforce divisions between groups within the organization. An integrated course brings together managers and staff from various departments and can help break down the barriers. Even when the course is predominantly focused on one functional area, everyone benefits from understanding what others do. Experience has shown that training is a very effective way of integrating subcultures within an organization. Safety Performance Measurement There are many possible safety performance indicators, and they are all useful in evaluating the success of the airport SMS. However, some performance indicators are especially helpful in integrating safety subcultures across the organization. To be effective, such performance indica- tors should be organizationwide and publicized. They should instill pride in the organization's operation. They can also be compared with similar organizations or industry averages in an effort to promote healthy competition. For example, the following indicators, when normalized against a reasonable timeframe, could be considered positive safety culture integrators: Number of incidents Percentage of incidents considered serious (over the last month, for example) Number of employee suggestions that have resulted in concrete safety improvements Number of outstanding safety action items Percent of strategic safety activities completed (in the current year) Organizationwide safety audit score Special Events Special events focused on safety, when they are attended by people across different depart- ments and levels, can greatly enhance mutual cooperation and safety culture integration. Note

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SMS Operation 101 that airport service providers (airlines, fuel providers, FBOs, catering, commissionaires, etc.) should also be considered key potential participants. There are many types of events that can be organized or attended by the airport staff, for example: Safety conferences and workshops (note that hosting such a conference at or near your air- port greatly enhances the promotion and integration benefits). Safety campaigns, such as an "annual FOD walk," recruiting airport employees to volunteer to participate walking the full length of the runway removing FOD. Such events can be fol- lowed by a staff luncheon or other event. Safety-sponsored family days. Partnering It is essential to the success of airport planning as well as to its SMS to establish the philoso- phy and practice of continuously involving and consulting with the airport stakeholders. With- out proper and regular consultation with the FAA, airport tenants, and service providers, airport plans may be flawed. Not only do they know best how they work and what is needed for a safe and efficient operation, but it is likely that there is a wealth of expertise available within their own workforce. Partnership in planning should exploit all the knowledge, experience, and ideas from all stakeholders(32). A further benefit is the cooperation and good relationships that can be formed by communication and consultation. Partnering with stakeholders makes it easier to communicate the rationale for decisions and, ultimately, gain acceptance by those who will be affected by them. For example, when developing SOPs affecting the ramp area, it would be a mistake if the airport did not consult with the stakeholders having activities at the ramp. The airport operator normally will lead and direct the consultation process, which should include aircraft operators, ground handlers, and those contractors providing basic aircraft ser- vices such as catering, aircraft cleaning, and fueling. Where appropriate, the FAA and ATC should be involved. It is important that representation be at a suitably senior level to ensure sound input and decision making. It is recognized that a direct lack of coordination among key airport functions is an important factor in accidents and incidents. Long-term and sustainable improvements in airport safety can be achieved only through the collective commitment and joint efforts of all airport stakeholders. Partnering with other safety-related organizations(32) and affiliates will demonstrate a public commitment by leadership. Enlist the support of your target audiences where possible. Involve associations or representatives of your target audiences to disseminate information or, better still, as campaign partners. This can give your campaign greater credibility. You can identify partners who not only share your commitment but who can also share the resources needed for the campaign. It is important to understand and acknowledge the func- tions, priorities, and strengths and weakness of your partners. Be aware of cultural differences when operating across borders, and establish channels and forums for exchanging information and ideas regularly. Be clear who is taking responsibility for what activities and that the decisions taken are understood by all. Possible partners may include the following: Airport tenants and service providers The FAA