Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page R1
NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 634 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Texturing of Concrete Pavements
OCR for page R2
TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., Pitt Meadows, BC Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Jeffrey F. Paniati, Acting Deputy Administrator and Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Peter Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2009.
OCR for page R3
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 634 Texturing of Concrete Pavements J. W. Hall K. L. Smith AND P. Littleton APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC. Vicksburg, MS Subject Areas Materials and Construction Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org
OCR for page R4
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 634 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 10-67 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-11792-0 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2009933398 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the © 2009 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
OCR for page R5
OCR for page R6
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 634 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Amir N. Hanna, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 10-67 PANEL Field of Materials and Construction--Area of Specifications, Procedures, and Practices Thomas M. Hearne, Jr., North Carolina DOT, Harrisburg, NC (Chair) Brad W. Allen, New York State DOT, Albany, NY James W. Mack, CEMEX, Houston, TX Matthew W. Mueller, Illinois DOT, Springfield, IL Thomas A. Pyle, California DOT, Sacramento, CA J. Jeffrey Seiders, Jr., Texas DOT, Austin, TX John H. Tenison, AMEC Earth & Environmental, Albuquerque, NM Roger L. Wayson, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL Mark Swanlund, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison
OCR for page R7
FOREWORD By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents a recommended process for determining the type of concrete pave- ment texture that should be used for a specific highway project. The process considers the effects of texture type on friction and noise characteristics. The report will guide pavement and construction engineers in identifying and specifying textures for concrete pavements that will provide adequate surface characteristics. The information contained in the report will be of immediate interest to state engineers and others concerned with concrete pave- ment design and construction. Tining--a means of texturing newly constructed concrete pavements--is generally per- formed to enhance pavement-surface macro-texture to improve pavement-surface fric- tional characteristics and reduce potential for hydroplaning, skidding, and wet-weather crashes. However, there has been a concern that tining has evolved without adequate con- sideration of the effects on noise generation, long-term durability, smoothness, con- structibility, pavement serviceability, and cost-effectiveness. Other options for texturing concrete pavements might provide better performance and yield environmental and eco- nomic benefits. Furthermore, no widely accepted guidelines or procedures for identifying and selecting methods of texturing concrete pavements that consider relevant technical, environmental, economic, and safety issues are available. Thus, research was needed to develop a rational procedure for use by highway agency personnel in identifying and select- ing texturing methods that will provide adequate surface characteristics for concrete pave- ments. Under NCHRP Project 10-67, "Texturing of Concrete Pavements," Applied Research Associates, Inc., worked with the objective of recommending appropriate methods for tex- turing concrete pavements for specific applications and ranges of climatic, site, and traffic conditions. These methods were to include tining and other means of texturing fresh and hardened concrete so as to enhance surface frictional characteristics. To accomplish this objective, the researchers reviewed available information on methods for texturing concrete pavements; conducted texture, friction, and noise measurements on in-service pavements in 13 states; identified textures likely to provide adequate surface characteristics; and inves- tigated these textures through in-service measurements on specially constructed sections in a paving project. Based on this work, the researchers proposed a process for determining the type of texture that should be used for a specific highway project. The proposed process will be particularly useful to highway agencies because its use will help identify textures that will provide adequate surface characteristics for concrete pavements. Appendixes A through F contained in the research agency's final report provide detailed information on the literature review, test results, and data analysis, as well as a sample spec-
OCR for page R8
ification for texture. These appendixes are not published herein; but they are available on the TRB website. These appendixes are titled as follows: Appendix A: State-of-the-Practice in Concrete Pavement Texturing Appendix B: Report on Highway Agency and Industry Interviews Appendix C: Existing Texture Test Sections Appendix D: Texture, Friction, and Noise Results for Existing Test Sections Appendix E: Texture, Friction, and Noise Results for Newly Constructed Test Sections Appendix F: Sample Specifications for Texture
OCR for page R9
CONTENTS 1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 Background 5 Description of the Problem 6 Project Objectives and Scope 6 Work Approach 6 Overview of Report 7 Chapter 2 State of the Practice 7 Literature Review 7 State and Industry Interviews 7 State-of-the-Practice Summary 14 Chapter 3 Evaluation of Existing Texture Test Sections 14 Test Section Selection 14 Collection of Pavement Data 18 Test Section Descriptions 18 Texture, Friction, and Noise Testing of Existing Texture Test Sections 20 Agency-Supplied Friction Data 20 Texture, Friction, and Noise Test Results 27 Chapter 4 Construction and Evaluation of New Test Sections 27 Selecting Surface Textures for Detailed Evaluation 27 Identification of a Candidate Paving Project 27 Project Overview 27 Construction of New Test Sections 30 Collection of Concrete Data 35 Texture, Friction, and Noise Test Procedures 38 Texture, Friction, and Noise Test Results 40 Chapter 5 Data Analysis 41 Spectral Analyses 48 Comparative/Qualitative Analyses 72 Statistical Analyses 79 Texture Construction Analyses 81 Chapter 6 Texture Selection Process 81 Texture Selection 90 Example Application of Texture Selection Process 90 Texture Construction Specifications and Practices
OCR for page R10
92 Chapter 7 Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research 92 Conclusions 93 Recommendations for Future Research 94 References 96 Abbreviations and Acronyms
OCR for page R11
AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research described herein was performed under NCHRP Project 10-67 by the Transportation Sec- tor of Applied Research Associates (ARA), Inc. Dr. Jim W. Hall, Jr., was the Principal Investigator for the study. Dr. Hall was supported in the research by ARA Research Engineers Mr. Kelly Smith, Mr. Paul Littleton, Dr. Shreenath Rao, and by former ARA Research Engineer Mr. Lynn Evans. Four project consultants-- Dr. James Wambold (CDRM, Inc. and Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering at Penn State Uni- versity), Dr. David Kuemmel (D.A. Kuemmel Consulting Engineers and Adjunct Professor at Marquette University), Mr. John Jaeckel (HNTB Corporation), and Mr. David Wittwer (United Paving Contractors, Inc.)--also contributed significantly to the study. The authors gratefully acknowledge those individuals from state departments of transportation (DOTs), industry organizations, and academia who participated in the interviews and/or provided impor- tant information and documentation for this project. The authors also express their gratitude to the Ari- zona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin DOTs for accommodating the data collection requests and the field testing on pavement test sections in their respective states. Grateful recognition also goes to the Illinois Tollway for sponsoring the construction of texture test sec- tions on the I-355 South Extension, as well as to the various entities who were actively involved in the con- struction of those sections, including H.W. Lochner, Inc. (construction consultant), K-Five Construction Co. (PCC paving contractor), Everest Engineering (quality assurance/quality control testing), and Qual- ity Saw and Seal, Inc. (subcontractor, diamond grinding and grooving). Finally, the team would like to acknowledge the following individuals and agencies who provided direct or indirect assistance in the testing of texture test sections: · Dr. J.J. Henry--Provision of DF Tester and CT Meter equipment for testing of in-place test sections, and training in the use of the DF Tester and CT Meter, including data collection, troubleshooting, data transfer, and data analysis. · Dr. Paul Donavan--Calibration testing of SI noise measuring system with Illingworth & Rod- kin (I&R) SI system. · Dr. Susanne Aref (Aref Consulting Group)--Statistical consulting and analyses using the SAS® statistical software. · Mr. Curt Beckemeyer and Mr. Bill Vavrik (ARA, Inc.)--Soliciting and securing the partici- pation of the Illinois Tollway in the texture construction demonstration. · National Center for Asphalt Testing (NCAT)--DF Tester and CT Meter testing of both in- service and newly constructed test sections. · International Cybernetics Corporation (ICC)--Provision, servicing, and calibration testing of ICC MDR 4081-T high-speed 64 kHz laser texture measurement system, and ASTM E 274 locked-wheel friction testing of new texture test sections. · Dynatest Consulting, Inc.--ASTM E 274 locked-wheel friction testing of new texture test sections. · Bruel & Kjaer--Training on the setup and use of the B&K PULSE analyzer and sound inten- sity (SI) measurement system, and the PULSE noise evaluation software and hardware. · G.R.A.S. Sound and Vibration--Acoustical expertise and supply of phase-matched sound intensity microphones, free-field microphones, pre-amplifiers, and cables. · Goodyear and Michelin Tire Companies--Supply of standard reference test tires.