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14 CHAPTER 3 Evaluation of Existing Texture Test Sections This chapter describes the process of selecting and con- sideration once it was determined that other sections were ducting texture, friction, and noise testing on several existing better candidates. pavement sections located throughout the United States. This An initial list of potential test sections in these locations effort took place in the spring, summer, and fall of 2005 was identified and later updated to include additional desir- (some minor follow-up work was done in summer 2006) and able test sections identified through discussions with state resulted in the collection of detailed surface characteristics DOTs (Table 3-1). This list does not include several alter- data on these test sections. nate sections identified as potential backups to the first two This chapter also describes (1) the selected test sections, options. Also, while most of the sections represent relatively (2) the collection of historical pavement data (e.g., design, new, lightly trafficked pavements, five of these sections rep- materials, construction, and performance/condition) and site/ resent older, more heavily trafficked pavements (shaded cells). conditions data (e.g., climate, traffic, geometrics, speed), and These more-trafficked sections were included to evaluate the (3) the testing protocols used for field measurements. This effects of traffic. chapter also summarizes the results of the testing. In the weeks leading up to and during the course of field testing, various changes were made to the tentative list. For instance, testing on some sections (e.g., Georgia, Texas, and Test Section Selection Quebec) could not be completed due to problems with the Various factors were considered in selecting test sections testing equipment or time constraints. Other changes were for evaluation. The most important factors were (1) the avail- made to exclude sections with inadequate pavement/site con- ability of pavement sections with the desired textures, (2) the ditions or to include sections that would enhance the testing interest and willingness of SHAs to assist in evaluating the test program. For example, one section in California was replaced sections (e.g., coordinating traffic control, conducting fric- because of shrinkage cracking and popouts in the pavement tion testing, and providing pavement and other relevant and a few sections in California, Colorado, and Iowa were data on the test sections), (3) the age of or amount of traf- added as replacements or supplements. fic accumulated on the test sections, and (4) the geograph- The final 57 test sections used in the evaluation of in-place ical locations and site conditions. The last factor was used textures are listed in Table 3-2, and are shown in Figure 3-1 to to select sections representative of different climatic and indicate the respective LTPP climatic zones. (Appendix C gives traffic conditions, as well as the texturing application (i.e., more specific information on the locations of the test sections, texturing of new pavement versus retexturing of existing the pavement facilities (structure, geometry) on which they pavement). exist, and the texture type, direction, and dimensions, as well Initially, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, as general information on the level of traffic, climatic condi- Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, tions, construction date, and the date on which the pavement Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin was opened to traffic.) were identified as having desirable test sections (i.e., promis- ing textures) and were considered for inclusion in the study. Collection of Pavement Data NASA Wallops was also considered because various textures were previously installed at the site. Sections in some of these Much of the information contained in Table 3-2 (and locations, including NASA Wallops, were removed from con- Appendix C which is available online) was acquired from

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15 Table 3-1. Tentative texturing methods and test sites. Basic Texture Section ID Type Specific Texture First Option Second Option Dense-Graded DGAC 1-2 years old IL 4-1 (4001)--I-57 Champaign (2004) IA 8-1 (9002)--US 30 Ames/ Asphalt (Control 1) Nevada (2004) Concrete DGAC 8-12 years old IL 8-1 (8001)--I-74 Champaign/ -- (DGAC) (Control 2) Mahomet (1998) Tran Tine Marquette skewed variable WI 5-1 (5001)--US 151 Mineral Point IL 1-1 (5001)--I-70 Marshall (2002) tine with long turf drag (2003) 0.5-in. spacing with long turf MO 1-1 (1001)--US 36 Hannibal (2004) GA 1-1 (---)--I-85 Atlanta (2004) drag 0.75-in. spacing with long turf IL 5-1 (1001)--I-55/74 Bloomington -- drag (2004) 0.5-in. spacing with long turf IA 1-1 (1001)--US 163 Des Moines/ -- drag Prairie City (1993) 0.75-in. spacing with long turf IA 5-1 (8001)--US 218 Washington/ -- drag Ainsworth (1997) Long Tine 0.75-in. spacing with long turf IA 2-1 (2001)--US 34 Mt. Pleasant (2004) KS 10 (1010)--US 69 Louisburg drag (2004) 0.75-in. spacing with burlap IA 2-2 (2002)--US 34 Mt. Pleasant (2004) CO 3-2 (3002)--US 287 Berthoud drag (2004) 0.75-in. spacing with long turf IA 1-3 (1003)--US 163 Des Moines/ -- drag Prairie City (1993) Long Groove 0.75-in. spacing, 0.125-in. CO 3-3 (3003)--US 287 Berthoud (2004) CA 3 (1003)--SR 58 Mojave (2003) depth, with long turf drag 0.75-in. spacing, 0.25-in. CA 4 (1004)--SR 58 Mojave (2003) -- depth, with long turf drag Astroturf Drag MTD < 0.03 in ND 2-1 (2001)--I-90 Glen Ullin (1999) KS 12 (1012)--US 69 Louisburg (2004) MTD = 0.03 to 0.05 in MN 2-1 (2003)--I-94/694 Brooklyn Park CO 3-1 (3001)--US 287 Berthoud (2003) (2004) Long Grind No jacks; 0.110-in. blade KS 2 (1002)--US 69 Louisburg (2004) AZ 1 (1001)--SR 202L Phoenix spacers (2003) No jacks; 0.120-in. blade KS 4 (1004)--US 69 Louisburg (2004) AZ 3 (1003)--SR 202L Phoenix spacers (2003) No jacks; 0.130-in. blade KS 8 (1008)--US 69 Louisburg (2004) KS 7 (1007)--US 69 Louisburg spacers (2004) Jacks; 0.110-in. blade spacers AZ 2 (1002)--SR 202L Phoenix (2003) Jacks; 0.120-in. blade spacers AZ 4 (1004)--SR 202L Phoenix (2003) Jacks; 0.130-in. blade spacers KS 5 (1005)--US 69 Louisburg (2004) KS 6 (1006)--US 69 Louisburg (2004) Burlap Drag CA 4.5 (1045)--SR 58 Mojave (2003) -- Broom Finish Longitudinal brush CA 5.5 (---)--SR 58 Mojave (2003) -- EACS QB 1-2 (---)--PH 40 Dorval (2004)) QB 1-3 (---)--PH 40 Dorval (2004) MI 1 (1001)--I-75 Detroit (1993) -- Ultra-thin Type A (0.1875 in.) KS 2-1 (2001)--US 54 Batesville (2004) -- Bonded Type B (0.375 in.) NC 1-1 (1001)--I-40 Hillsdale/Clemmons KS 4-1 (4001)--I-70 Salina/Juniata Wearing Course (2004) (2004) Shotpeen MTD = 0.018 to 0.02 in. TX 1-1 (1001)--I-20 Dallas/Duncanville TX 2-1 (---)--I-45 Houston (2004) (2004) 1 in. = 25.4 mm Note 1: Shaded cells represent older, more heavily trafficked sections. Note 2: Site ID consists of original ID number followed by final ID number in parentheses. Note 3: Second set of parentheses following highway number and city contains year of construction/texturing.

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16 Table 3-2. Pavement test sections selected for evaluation. STATE HIGHWAY YEAR (DIR) LOCATION CONST ORIG NEW TEXTURE DESCRIPTION ID ID AZ SR 202L (WB) Phoenix 2003 AZ 1 1001 Long DG (no jacks), 0.235-in. spacing (0.11-in. spacers) SR 202L (WB) 2003 AZ 2 1002 Long DG (jacks), 0.235-in. spacing (0.11-in. spacers) SR 202L (WB) 2003 AZ 3 1003 Long DG (no jacks), 0.245-in. spacing (0.12-in. spacers) SR 202L (WB) 2003 AZ 4 1004 Long DG (jacks), 0.245-in. spacing (0.12-in. spacers) CA SR 58 (EB) Mojave 2003 CA 2 1002 Long DG (no jacks), 0.245-in. spacing (0.12-in. spacers) SR 58 (EB) 2003 CA 3 1003 Long Groove (0.75-in. spacing, 0.125-in. depth), burlap drag SR 58 (EB) 2003 CA 4 1004 Long Groove (0.75-in. spacing, 0.25-in. depth), burlap drag SR 58 (EB) 2003 CA 4.5 1045 Long Burlap Drag SR 58 (EB) 2003 CA 5 1005 Long DG (no jacks), 0.23-in. spacing (0.105-in. spacers) SR 58 (EB) 2003 CA 7 1007 Long Groove (0.375-in. spacing, 0.25-in. depth), broom drag SR 58 (EB) 2003 CA 7.5 1075 Long Broom Drag CO I-70 (EB) Deer Trail/Agate 1994 CO 1-7 1007 Long Groove (0.75-in. spacing, 0.125-in. depth), turf drag I-70 (EB) 1994 CO 1-8 1008 Long Turf Drag I-70 (EB) 1994 CO 1-9 1009 Long Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.125-in. depth), turf drag US 287 (SB) Berthoud 2004 CO 3-1 3001 Long Heavy Turf Drag US 287 (SB) 2004 CO 3-2 3002 Long Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.1875-in. depth), no pretexture US 287 (SB) 2004 CO 3-3 3003 Long Meander Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.125-in. depth), no pretexture US 287 (NB) 2004 CO 3-5 3004 Long Groove (0.75-in. spacing, 0.125-in. depth), turf drag US 287 (NB) 2004 CO 3-6 3005 Long DG (no jacks), 0.22-in. spacing (0.095-in. spacers) US 287 (SB) 2004 CO 3-7 3006 Long Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.125-in. depth), turf drag IL I-55/74 (SB/EB) Bloomington 2004 IL 5-1 1001 Tran Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.15-in. depth), turf drag I-57 (SB) Champaign 2003 IL 4-1 4001 Dense-Graded AC (Superpave) I-70 (WB) Marshall 2002 IL 1-1 5001 Tran Skew Tine (variable spacing, 0.15-in. depth), turf drag I-74 (WB) Champaign/Mahomet 1998 IL 8-1 8001 Dense-Graded AC IA US 163 Des Moines/ 1993 IA 1-2 1002 Tran Tine (0.5-in. spacing, 0.075-in. depth), turf drag US 163 Prairie City 1993 IA 1-3 1003 Long Tine (0.5-in. spacing, 0.075-in. depth), turf drag US 163 1993 IA 1-4 1004 Long Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.15-in. depth), turf drag US 163 1993 IA 1-6.1 1061 Tran Groove (1-in. spacing, 0.18- to 0.25-in. depth), turf drag US 163 1993 IA 1-7 1007 Long Turf Drag US 34 2004 IA 2-1 2001 Long Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.125-in. depth), turf drag US 34 2004 IA 2-2 2002 Long Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.125-in. depth), burlap drag US 218 1997 IA 5-1 8001 Tran Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.15-in. depth), turf drag US 218 1997 IA 5-2 8002 Tran Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.15-in. depth), turf drag US 30 2004 IA 8-1 9002 Dense-Graded AC (Superpave) KS US 69 Louisburg 2004 KS 2 1002 Long DG (no jacks), 0.235-in. spacing (0.11-in. spacers) & standard-sawed joints US 69 2004 KS 4 1004 Long DG (no jacks), 0.245-in. spacing (0.12-in. spacers) & single-sawed joints US 69 2004 KS 5 1005 Long DG (jacks), 0.255-in. spacing (0.13-in. spacers) & standard-sawed joints US 69 2004 KS 6 1006 Long DG (jacks), 0.255-in. spacing (0.13-in. spacers) & single- sawed joints US 69 2004 KS 7 1007 Long DG (no jacks), 0.255-in. spacing (0.13-in. spacers) & standard-sawed joints US 69 2004 KS 8 1008 Long DG (no jacks), 0.255-in. spacing (0.13-in. spacers) & single-sawed joints US 69 2004 KS 10 1010 Long Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.15-in. depth), turf drag US 54 Batesville 2004 KS 2-1 2001 Ultra-Thin Bonded Wearing Course (0.1875-in. NMAS) I-70 Salina/Juniata 2004 KS 4-1 4001 Ultra-Thin Bonded Wearing Course (0.375-in. NMAS) MI I-75 Detroit 1993 MI 1 1001 Exposed Aggregate Concrete MN US 169 Eden Prairie/Shakopee 1996 MN 1 1001 Long Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.125-in. depth), turf drag I-94/694 Brooklyn Park 2003 MN 2-1 2003 Long Broom Drag I-94/694 Brooklyn Center 2004 MN 2-1 2004 Long Turf Drag I-694 Fridley/New Brighton 1990 MN 5 5001 Long Turf Drag US 169 Brooklyn Park/Champlin 1996 MN 7 7001 Long Turf Drag US 169 1996 MN 8 8001 Long Tine (0.75-in. spacing, 0.125-in. depth), turf drag MO US 36 Hannibal 2004 MO 1-1 1001 Tran Tine (0.5-in. spacing, 0.125-in. depth), no pretexture NC I-40 Hillsdale/Clemmons 2004 NC 1 1001 Ultra-Thin Bonded Wearing Course (0.375-in. NMAS) ND I-94 Glen Ullin 1999 ND 2-1 2001 Long Heavy Turf Drag I-94 1999 ND 2-2 2002 Tran Tine (variable spacing, 0.1-in. depth), turf drag I-94 Valley City 2000 ND 6-1 6001 Tran Skew Tine (variable spacing, 0.15-in. depth), turf drag TX I-20 Duncanville/Dallas 2004 TX 1-1 1001 Shotblasted Concrete WI US 151 Mineral Point 2003 WI 5-1 1001 Tran Tine (variable spacing, 0.15-in. depth), turf drag 1 in. = 25.4 mm NMAS: Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size

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17 Dry-freeze Dry-nonfreeze Wet-freeze Wet Figure 3-1. Location of test sections with respect to LTPP climatic regions. state highway agencies, including additional information Surface Design--Primary texture (type, dimensions obtained while performing the on-site field testing. and direction), pre-texture (type, dimensions and To verify and augment the information obtained for the direction). test sections, written and oral requests were made to repre- Geometric Design--Posted speed, cross-slope, grade, sentatives of each participating agency to obtain informa- presence of curves, intersections, etc. tion on PCC aggregate and mix design properties; con- Project/Site Information struction specifications, conditions, processes, and quality Location--Highway, direction, reference/milepost/ testing results; historical traffic levels and compositions; station limits, lanes, nearest city, coordinates (elevation, historical pavement conditions (distresses and smoothness); latitude, and longitude). and historical friction, texture, and/or noise measurements. Setting--Urban/suburban/rural, facility type, adjacent Simultaneous requests were also made to each agency for the land use (residential, commercial), special use (studded conduct (and provision of resulting data) of locked-wheel tires, snowplow use). friction testing (ASTM E 274, with smooth [ASTM E 524] Climate (National Climate Data Center)--General LTPP and/or ribbed [ASTM E 501] tire) on each test section in descriptor (dry-freeze [DF], dry-nonfreeze [DNF], wet- the general timeframe of the planned friction, texture, and freeze [WF], wet-nonfreeze [WNF]), average annual noise testing. precipitation, average annual snowfall, number of days The goal of the data collection effort was to develop a above 90F (32C), number of days below 32F (0C), comprehensive database on the existing test sections to help freeze-thaw cycles, freezing index. in analyzing relationships between friction, texture, and Construction Data noise. The database was envisioned to include the following General--Construction date, paving conditions (temper- types of data: ature, wind, sun, rain), traffic opening date. Applicable Construction/Materials Specs--Fine and Design Data coarse aggregate requirements (hardness, uncompacted Structure/Joint Design--Traffic, cross-section (materials voids, fractured faces, flat/elongated, LA abrasion, Micro- and thicknesses), dowels, reinforcement, joint spacing Deval, acid insoluble residue [AIR], polish value), and lane width (slab dimensions), joint seal (type, config- mix requirements (cement content, w/c ratio, slump, uration, condition). air content, strength), surface requirements (texture, Mixture Design--Aggregate (type/source, properties), smoothness, noise, friction). cement (type), mixture proportions, mixture properties Construction Process--PCC placement, finishing, textur- (cement content, water-to-cement [w/c] ratio, slump, air ing, and curing equipment/methods and timing, docu- content, strength, porosity). mented construction problems.