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10 Describe a methodology to perform a risk analysis for safety years, the trend in the traffic safety field has been to favor measures at LRT alignments [Chapter 6], and "crash" and avoid "accident" as "accident" implies an event Recommend ways to facilitate the compilation of collision that cannot be prevented. It remains a common practice, data in a coordinated and consistent manner across LRT however, to use the term "accident" in much of the litera- systems [Chapter 7]. ture and also in the industry, so the term "accident" some- times appears in this report. Summary of all information gathered, and preparation of Research Issues the Phase 2 work plan [Tasks 7, 8]. LRT is becoming an increasingly important mode of trans- portation for residents of major metropolitan regions of the Using the results of Phase I and the guidance of the panel, United States and Canada. While streetcars have been in the project team designed a revised approach to Phase II. The use in a number of cities for many decades, the concept and second phase focused on preparing a final report that would operation of the modern LRT is quite new in many locations. successfully meet the project objectives. The operating characteristics of the LRV and the common Phase II included the following activities: practice of keeping LRT operations in close proximity to con- ventional street activities of motor vehicles and pedestrians Consultation with representatives of the Federal Transit introduces a new set of safety issues to the urban environ- Administration (FTA), State Safety Oversight (SSO) agen- ment. As more urban areas choose to invest in LRT, it is cies, and local LRT operating agencies. Follow-up re- increasingly important to understand the resulting safety quests for data at the agency, state, and national levels challenges and the mitigation measures available to maintain [Tasks 3, 9, 11]. and improve safety along LRT alignments. Site visits to selected LRT agencies. The site visits included There are several key issues. These include identifying the system observation and stakeholder consultation. The vis- safety problems that may be present in a certain setting, select- its allowed for the collection of further information about ing corrective measure(s) that should be implemented to data collection, collision records, the use of the MUTCD, improve safety in specific settings, and assessing their likely and LRT safety issues. The visits provided valuable oppor- safety benefits in a meaningful way. Improved collision data tunities for detailed discussion of the effectiveness of treat- that are assembled in a consistent format and linked directly ments, risk assessment, data gathering, and data processing to the physical and operating circumstances of the LRT are [Tasks 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11]. essential for conducting valid LRT safety studies. Further review of LRT safety data, including compilation and analysis of newly available data; review of data collec- tion and storage procedures; and development of recom- Research Approach mendations concerning data collection and processing The work was undertaken by iTRANS Consulting with [Tasks 3, 9, 11]. support from Herbert Levinson and TRA Inc. under the Assembly of profiles for various LRT-related safety treat- guidance of a TCRP panel. Various activities were required to ments [Tasks 9, 12]. fulfill the project and task objectives, and some of the origi- Development of a risk assessment methodology [Tasks nal project tasks overlapped. 10, 12]. In Phase I, the team undertook the following activities: Structure of Final Report Literature review of LRT safety issues, safety measures, devices, practices, and new technologies relevant to LRT The final report is organized into seven chapters. The alignments [Tasks 1, 6]. chapters summarize the findings of the activities described Survey of North American LRT agencies [Tasks 2, 4, 5, 6]. above, and provide recommendations for transit agencies, Initial assembly and analysis of basic LRT crash data from SSOs, the FTA, the NTD, and other groups involved in LRT federal, state, and local transit agencies. Note that, for a safety. A large amount of supporting technical and detailed number of reasons, data were difficult to obtain at this stage. information is included in the appendices. The reasons will be described later in the report [Task 3]. It The seven chapters are: should be noted that the words "accident," "collision," and "crash" are often used interchangeably in the literature and This chapter, the Introduction. elsewhere to refer to a traffic incident that involves at least Chapter 2, State of the Practice Methodology and Sum- one vehicle impacting with another road user or object, mary, which provides an overview of the present state of the usually resulting in injury or property damage. In recent practice concerning LRT safety, focusing on the system as a

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11 whole. The content is based largely on information gathered LRT agencies. This overview is followed by a summary of during the literature review, agency survey, and site visits. The four strategies that are key to organizing and implement- complete literature review, which describes the state of knowl- ing LRT safety measures. The strategies were developed edge and current practice as published in the available litera- from the work undertaken for this project and the obser- ture, is included in Appendix B. The complete summary of vations made by the project team. the survey results is included in Appendix C. A series of tech- Chapter 5, LRT Catalog of Safety Treatments, which intro- nical memoranda that provide summaries of the activities duces the broad set of LRT safety treatments that are ad- and findings of the site visits carried out for this project are dressed in detail in Appendix A in catalog format. The assembled in Appendix D. catalog includes pictures and information about the Chapter 3, LRT Safety Data Available from Local Transit treatment, impacts of the safety treatment, and examples Agencies, SSOs, and the NTD: A major component of the from agencies that have installed the treatment. The cata- initial tasks and project objectives was to gather and analyze log also comments on the use of the MUTCD for LRT existing LRT collision data. Chapter 3 discusses transit safety applications. data from three sources: the transit agencies, the SSOs, and Chapter 6, LRT Risk Analysis Methodology, which re- the NTD. The chapter outlines some of the inconsistencies in views the concept of risk assessment, and presents a the data and some of the challenges that arise when using checklist for assessing risk through safety audits on LRT transit data for statistical analysis. Chapter 3 also presents the alignments. main system-wide findings obtained from an analysis of the Chapter 7, Improving the Crash Data Collection Process, available data. which provides an overview of how LRT crash data are cur- Chapter 4, Safety Issues and their Treatment, which provides rently collected, and recommends a standardized process an introduction to the concepts of root causes and contribut- for gathering, storing, and sharing LRT crash data. The rec- ing factors, and discusses how these concepts are applied to ommended approach is intended to better support the LRT safety. The chapter continues with an overview of the analysis of safety trends and the analysis of effects of safety types of safety issues that are reported in the literature and by treatments in the future.