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20 agencies to provide safety training programs for LRV operators. that must be addressed along LRT alignments. These safety Other programs focus on educating motorists, pedestrians, concerns are inattention of those approaching the LRT align- and cyclists about safety near LRT alignments through signage ment; confusion of those approaching the LRT alignment; lack on platforms, educational brochures, and web pages on safety. of appropriate separation between motorists, cyclists, pedestri- Community programs have been implemented across the ans, and the LRV; risky behavior by those approaching the LRT country, many in cooperation with Operation Lifesaver's Light alignment; and LRV operator error or lack of information. The Rail branch (Operation Lifesaver, www.oli.org). The programs statistical information available is insufficient to determine the target children and/or adults through different styles and relative importance of these safety concerns, or the nature of modes of message delivery and different key safety messages. any interrelationships between them. Some jurisdictions have promoted the inclusion of light rail LRT safety treatments can be divided into two major cate- safety information in their state driver's handbooks. Local gories: physical improvements to the immediate environment enforcement agencies may be involved by means of issuing surrounding the LRT, and education and enforcement pro- citations for infringement of the LRT's ROW and other unsafe grams. Appendix A provides a detailed catalog of LRT safety behavior. Some agencies are also using speakers at their sta- treatments. tions and in the LRV to broadcast public safety messages. Physical improvements can be further categorized into pas- sive measures and active measures. In general, well-designed active measures (including traffic controls) that suited their Summary environment were more effective in increasing LRT safety The existing body of knowledge regarding LRT safety expe- than were passive measures. A wide variety of education and rience includes both formal research and practical experience. enforcement programs are available, but the effectiveness of Following an extensive literature review, a survey of local tran- these programs is difficult to quantify. While it is possible to sit agencies, follow-up consultations with local transit agencies, implement measures to prevent risky behavior resulting from and information gathered during site visits, the project team inattention or confusion, it is virtually impossible to mitigate was able to identify the five most critical areas of safety concern the impact of deliberate noncompliance.