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23 Formula Program" is required to submit data to the NTD; Each of these documents consists of a series of forms that there are currently over 650 transit agencies that send reports must be completed and submitted to the FTA by the transit to the NTD (5). reporter: 1. The Annual Report provides "a summary of transit char- Purpose of NTD Safety Data Collection acteristics for the fiscal year, including financial and non- The FTA receives and compiles data in the NTD from financial operating statistics" (7). each agency with an LRT system in the United States 2. The Monthly Report provides the NTD with a summary through a standard electronic reporting form. The data col- of the ridership and service provided by the transit agency lected by the NTD is used by a variety of organizations for over the past month (7). diverse purposes, including formulation of National Tran- 3. The Safety and Security Report provides a summary sit Policy, state and regional planning and investment, of transit-related security and safety incidents for the academic/industry research, special analyses, and applications year (7). relating to the private sector/general public (5). In order to 4. The Rural Report is a summary of transit data for rural sys- meet the diverse demands of its users and provide summary tems receiving funding under the FTA Formula Program level information to the public, the NTD produces publica- for Non-Urbanized Areas (8). tions such as Transit Profiles, Data Tables, and National Transit Summaries and Trends. These publications summa- The data provided in the Annual Report, Monthly Report, rize important service, financial, operational, and modal and Rural Report are not primarily intended for safety analy- data for both individual agencies and the nation as a whole. sis, but contain some information (e.g., measures of exposure The NTD provides these publications for download free of to risk, vehicle revenue miles, etc.) that would be useful for charge on the NTD website ( that purpose. The Safety and Security Report is the primary ntdprogram). source of the data required for safety analysis. The NTD is not directly involved in efforts to improve tran- The two forms used to report safety and security data to the sit safety at the local level: transit safety is the responsibility of NTD are the S&S-40 Reportable Incident Report form and the SSO and local transit agencies. In fact, the NTD was not the S&S-50 Safety and Security Monthly Summary Report primarily designed for the purpose of reporting of safety and form. Both of these forms are described in greater detail in security data. It is only "in recent years (that) the NTD has Appendix E. The collision data reported in the S&S-50 form is grown to include safety, security, and rural transportation data" provided in a monthly summary format that is not conducive (5). According to the NTD website, the stated objective of the to safety analysis. Incidents are treated as aggregate datasets collection of safety and security data by the NTD is the devel- that provide no detailed information regarding the conditions opment of performance benchmarks based on the statistics or circumstances present at each incident. Therefore, the obtained from transit systems nationwide (6). The data col- data used in safety analysis is drawn almost exclusively from lected by the NTD from the SSO and local transit agencies are the S&S-40 report form. used to produce publications summarizing national transit The S&S-40 form is used only to report incidents that service and safety data. satisfy the criteria of a "reportable incident" (formerly "major incident"). According to the 2008 Safety and Security Reporting Manual: Data Collected by NTD A reportable incident is an event that involves a transit vehicle The data collected by the NTD can be divided into four gen- or occurs on transit controlled property and meets one or eral categories: operational characteristics, service characteris- more of the following conditions: tics, capital revenue and assets, and financial operating statistics. Data pertinent to safety analysis primarily falls into the cate- A fatality (including a suicide or deaths resulting from gories of service and operational characteristics. other safety occurrences not otherwise classified), The actual reporting of the data is the responsibility of the Injuries requiring immediate medical attention away from transit reporters, who generally fall into the following three the scene for one or more persons, categories: transit agencies, providers of purchased trans- Property damage equal to or exceeding $25,000, or portation services, and voluntary reporters (5). Transit An evacuation for life safety (7). reporters provide the NTD with the required data through the submission of the following four standardized reporting The above criteria have undergone numerous significant forms: the Annual Report, the Monthly Report, the Safety changes between the years 2002 and 2008. In general, the and Security Report, and the Rural Report (if applicable). reporting requirements have become increasingly sensitive