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55 These surrogate measures can provide agencies the infor- The same principle can be applied to second train (some- mation required to identify potential hazards. They may also times termed "approaching train") warning signs. None of be useful as before-and-after studies and other safety research. the second train warning signs viewed during the site visits to transit agencies indicated the direction of the approach- ing train. The impacts of providing this additional infor- General Treatment Strategies mation should be tested using before-and-after surrogate The analysis and agency input obtained during site visits measures such as risky actions by pedestrians or emergency enabled the project team to identify four general treatment brake records at a crossing where a directional second train strategies that would help to mitigate the safety issues and risks warning sign is installed. reported by local LRT agencies. The strategies listed below 3. Education: Agencies commented that the public does are a summary of commonly encountered observations and not seem to have the same respect for LRT as for freight recommendations from the staff of the LRT agencies visited. and commuter rail trains. Further, in cities where LRT is Information about specific safety treatments is provided in new, motorists, cyclists, and pedestrians may not under- Appendix A, and documentation of the site visits and discus- stand how to behave in the alignment. Safety campaigns sions with the local staff are provided in the site visit memos in improve public understanding of how to act in the light Appendix D. rail alignment. Arizona, for example, has included a The four strategies are: section concerning driving around LRT in their driver training handbook. Other agencies broadcast safety 1. Give responsibility to the operators: Representatives from reminders over their platform and LRV audio systems NJT were especially clear on the need to give responsibil- and/or run public awareness campaigns. Operation Life- ity to the operators. An LRV is not a bus. LRV operators saver has an LRT branch that works with agencies to should be given special, intensive, and location-specific increase awareness. All of these strategies aim to teach training. NJT LRT operators have four weeks of training, citizens how to drive, walk, or cycle around LRT, but followed by one week of hands-on experience with a sea- they also increase public awareness of the serious nature soned operator. NJT staff noted that operator training is of LRV collisions. essential where an agency cannot install the optimum 4. Separation of LRT space from the space occupied by other treatment because of a physical limitation. NJT recom- modes: While active information (as described in strat- mended giving operators increased responsibility, and sug- egy 2, "Increase motorist, pedestrian, and cyclist aware- gested that automation should be limited. Other transit ness by providing active, appropriate information") agencies visited also reported that their operators were provides useful and direct information to motorists, trained to drive defensively. One agency noted the fre- cyclists, and pedestrians, the separation of LRT space can quency of reviewing their operators was based on the oper- provide environmental cues for safety. The separation can ators' incident and complaint records. be a clear physical barrier, such as landscaping or channel- 2. Increase motorist, pedestrian, and cyclist awareness by ization, or a more subtle measure such as a change in providing active, appropriate information: All the transit pavement type. Pavement type has an effect: in the tran- agencies visited reported that motorists, cyclists, and pedes- sit agency site visits, all the locations identified as problem trians respond better to active signage than to passive sign- areas because pedestrians crossed mid-station or mid-block age. Agencies have observed that motorists, cyclists, and had surface treatments that were conducive to walking pedestrians who cross the LRT alignment on a regular basis between the tracks. The locations that had gravel between can become desensitized to warnings. This problem is more the tracks were not identified as problem areas for pedes- pronounced where the warnings provide general informa- trian incidents. tion instead of specific information (e.g., train sign instead The separation can also be complete by separating the of a no turn sign), or where the duration of the warning is grades (conversion to a type a.1 alignment) which precludes longer than necessary. The project team visited one NJT errant movements. This offers the additional benefit of crossing location where pedestrians clearly disregarded the reducing delay for road vehicles. There are, however, major audible warning device. The agency guide noted that the drawbacks in terms of capital cost, land requirement, envi- warning sound was a standard length and much longer than ronmental impacts, disruption of existing operations, and required for a pedestrian to clear the tracks. Local pedestri- so on. Complete separation of the ROW has not been con- ans learned to disregard the warning because it did not pro- sidered as a practical safety treatment in this study (in terms vide relevant information about the approach of a train. In of something that can be applied to a safety problem), but fact, because of the length of the signal, its warning seemed it would clearly improve safety if it can be designed-in to sound "all the time." before construction starts.