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56 CHAPTER 5 LRT Catalog of Safety Treatments LRT agencies should identify safety issues and then, work- Phone consultations with SSOs, and ing with or under the supervision of SSOs, and in cooperation Literature review. with other bodies such as city transportation departments and the police, select appropriate safety treatments. The safety The project team refined the list of treatments for inclusion treatments may include active or passive physical devices or in the catalog. Some treatments were removed or combined practices, education, and/or enforcement, and may be applied with other treatments to improve clarity and flow. Select inno- locally or on a location, line, or system-wide basis. vative or interesting treatments identified during the site visits were added. The catalog, as presented here, is not exhaustive, and other treatments should be included in the catalog in Introduction to the Catalog future updates. of LRT Safety Treatments Some widespread treatments are not addressed in the cat- As part of Project A-30, the project team assembled a cata- alog. These include: log that provides readily accessible information about LRT- related treatments than can be used to address the safety issues Left turn prohibitions: Most jurisdictions with type b and that arise where LRT alignments meet motorists, pedestrians, type c alignments use turn prohibitions at some intersec- and cyclists. The catalog is intended to assist agencies in choos- tions. The prohibitions are often applied in alignments ing and applying the appropriate treatment or combination of where the LRT runs down the center of the roadway and treatments for given safety problems, taking into account the are intended to prevent drivers from turning in front of an specific circumstances of the agency. The catalog includes LRV in locations where they may not see or notice an LRV active and passive physical treatments as well as education- and approaching. Agencies noted that drivers often violate turn enforcement-based treatments. To enhance usability, the cat- prohibitions (as is common with turn prohibitions outside alog has been included as a separate document and attached in the LRT context) and that they are hard to enforce. Many Appendix A. agencies are moving towards blank out signs to prohibit The project team began assembling the catalog based on a left turns as an LRV approaches. Blank out signs are list of treatments developed as part of the online survey dur- addressed in the catalog. ing the last few months of 2006. Two types of treatments were Two quadrant gates: Where gates are installed along an included: commonly used treatments and new technologies. LRT or railroad alignment, these are the most common This list was assembled by the project team and provided to the type. Two quadrant gates block the approach lane(s) on Panel. After review by the Panel, the project team incorporated each side as a train approaches. They do not block the all comments received. The list of treatments was carried for- opposing traffic lane; gates that block both the approach- ward throughout the rest of the project. ing and opposing traffic lanes are called four quadrant The information in the catalog comes from the following gates and these are addressed in the catalog. Gates seem to sources: be more common in areas with existing railroad crossings and can be beneficial because of recognition by the local Directly from the five LRT agencies that cooperated with population. Areas without a history of railroad crossings the project team during a series of site visits, seem to be more likely to install signals or other types of Discussions in person and by phone with LRT agency staff, controls. There are no data indicating which treatment