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61 purpose if significant changes have occurred in the surround- tion required to complete a comprehensive analysis. The safety ing area. audit team should have a broad view of the project objectives and challenges. Information to be provided depends on the Practical Methodology stage of the project, but typically includes site data (i.e., traffic for Safety Audits data, design standards used, etc.), plans, and drawings. Numerous existing standards comprehensively address the Conduct a Pre-audit Meeting to Review methodology of safety audits. The methodology summarized Project Information below is based on a review of the following documents: The purpose of the pre-audit meeting is to clearly outline Federal Highway Administration, Road Safety Audit Guide- the scope of the safety audit and review all available informa- lines, tion. The meeting should both familiarize the project team Transportation Association of Canada, Road Safety Audits: with the safety audit process and introduce the safety audit Canadian Guidelines, and team to the project. The project and safety audit teams should National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis agree on the delegation of responsibilities, the timetable, and of Practice 336: Road Safety Audits. suitable lines of communication. Arrangements for site visits can also be made at this time. The standard methodology for safety audits generally includes the following steps: Assess/Analyze Background Information Select the safety audit team, Once the safety audit team has been provided with the back- Provide background information to the safety audit team, ground information, the next step is to begin to evaluate and Conduct a pre-audit meeting to review project information, analyze it. The first step is usually a brainstorming session Assess/analyze background information, involving all members of the multi-disciplinary team. This is Perform site inspections under various conditions, typically followed by a desktop evaluation of all of the material Prepare and submit safety audit report, provided by the project team. It is critical that this evaluation Conduct safety audit completion meeting, focus exclusively on safety concerns, and not digress into eval- Prepare formal response (completed by project owner/ uation of matters outside of the scope of the safety audit (i.e., design team), and cost of alternative designs). Incorporate safety audit findings into project (where appropriate). Perform Site Inspections under Various Conditions Each of these steps is explained briefly below. Additional information is listed in the sources listed above, and in numer- The purpose of the site inspections is to provide the safety ous other publications on the safety audit process. audit team with a clear picture of conditions at the project site. Team members are afforded the opportunity to experience the site and surrounding facilities from the perspective of all Select the Safety Audit Team potential users (pedestrians, car drivers, heavy vehicle opera- The safety audit team should be an independent multidis- tors, LRV operators, cyclists, etc.), and visualize any potential ciplinary team with the appropriate expertise and training safety concerns that may not be apparent from the design to successfully conduct the safety audit. All team members drawings alone. In many cases viewing the site at night in addi- should be impartial; therefore anyone previously involved in tion to daytime can provide valuable information not other- the design process should not be included. Auditors must be wise available. The observers should also consider the potential unconstrained in their ability to comment on potentially con- effects of transient conditions such as rainfall or snow storage tentious safety issues. The size and structure of the safety as applicable. The stage of the project will ultimately determine audit team will vary based on the stage and complexity of the what useful information can be gleaned from site inspections project. (see the Design Stage and In-use Stage sections). Provide Background Information Prepare and Submit Safety Audit Report to the Safety Audit Team The safety audit report should be completed once the safety It is the responsibility of the project team to provide the team has identified all potential safety concerns. The report safety audit team with all of the relevant background informa- should include a brief description of the project, including