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70 itative description (minor/moderate/major) or quantitative employees involved in the investigation or reporting process estimate (greater or less than a dollar value). Description of was also collected. damage relied on the investigator to provide a meaningful description of the damage to each vehicle. Existing Accident Reporting Standards The methods of reporting damage were generally inconsis- tent across transit agencies. Although there were some agencies The desire to promote uniformity and comparability of that combined the above techniques in an effort to create a accident data and statistics across agencies and levels of gov- more comprehensive view of the damage, many agencies relied ernment has led to the publication of a number of accident solely on a rough dollar value estimate or arbitrary classifica- reporting guidelines that include: tion of damage. In addition, the incident reporting forms gen- erally did not provide any guidance as to how the user should American National Standard Manual on Classification of decide between various classifications of damage. Finally, dam- Motor Vehicle Traffic Accidents (ANSI D16) (7th ed., Amer- age reported in either diagrams or text descriptions would ican National Standards Institute, ANSI D16.1-2007, 2007) likely be very difficult to translate into an electronic database in Data Element Dictionary for Traffic Record Systems (ANSI a format suitable for analysis. D20) (American Association of Motor Vehicle Adminis- trators, ANSI D20-2003, April 2003) Injuries/Fatalities Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria (MMUCC) Guide- line (3rd ed., 2008 http://www.mmucc.us/, accessed Aug 28, In general, the incident report forms focused on reporting 2008) the number of injuries, the classification of each injured per- son (e.g., transit agency employee, passenger, pedestrian, etc.), the extent of each injury, and how each injured person was Supervisory Agency Data transported from the scene. A combination of checkboxes As discussed in Chapter 3, there are other agencies at the state and text fields was usually used to record the relevant infor- and national levels that receive and compile data reported by mation. The incident report forms also included sections local LRT agencies, and the reporting process is outlined below. where the contact information of each injured individual could be reported. The method of reporting the number and severity of SSO Agency Data injuries used on the Utah TRAX Supervisor's Accident/ Incident Report Form seemed particularly useful. While the SSOs fill multiple roles. They collect data to forward to the majority of forms relied solely on a description of injuries FTA, but their larger role is to oversee accident investigations provided by the investigator in a text field, the TRAX from and to undertake corrective action. All SSOs follow the same also provided a table with three rows of injury classification: basic reporting process following an incident. Transit agencies Class A (bruising, abrasions, minor to moderate bleeding, are required to notify their SSO of an incident (which may or sprains, and strains), Class B (unconsciousness, fractures, may not be a crash) over a certain severity threshold within two severe bleeding), and Class C (death, paralysis, and dismem- hours of the incident occurring. The SSO then proceeds with a berment). Each vehicle involved in the incident was assigned more formal safety review. The SSO may conduct an investiga- a column in the table, and the user was required to indicate tion directly, or the transit agency may conduct the investiga- the number of individuals in each vehicle whose injuries fell tion and then report it to the SSO. If warranted, the SSO under each category. This method of reporting injuries formulates a corrective action plan. The SSO submits all data appears useful to concisely convey most of the information to the FTA in an annual report. All SSO agencies interviewed relevant to the transit agency, while providing the user with for this study expressed interest in a consistent standard for some concrete guidance on how to report the extent of accident data collection. injuries. FTA/NTD Data Contact Information The National Transit Database is "the Federal Transit All the incident report forms included sections where the Administration's primary national database for statistics on contact information of all individuals involved in the incident the transit industry" (National Transit Database Federal Tran- was reported. Almost all the forms collected contact informa- sit Administration 2008 Safety and Security Reporting Manual). tion for all drivers, vehicle owners, witnesses, and emergency Transit agencies are required to report all safety and security personnel present at the scene. The contact information of all incidents to the NTD using two forms. The Safety and Secu-