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8 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Research Problem Statement To facilitate the compilation of safety data, guidelines are needed to enable transit agencies to report comparable safety Many major metropolitan regions in North America are data in a consistent and comprehensive fashion that will currently planning, constructing, or already have LRT systems. support research and help to improve LRT safety. Although these systems have excellent overall safety records, collisions do occur, and public perception often runs counter to the statistics. TCRP has produced several reports dealing Research Objectives with pedestrian and motorist safety along LRT alignments. The The TCRP established three objectives in the Research Proj- reports include TCRP Report 17: Integration of Light Rail Tran- ect Statement. These objectives are addressed in this report in sit into City Streets; TCRP Report 69: Light Rail Service: Pedes- the chapters identified in brackets. The objectives are: trian and Vehicular Safety; and TCRP Research Results Digest 51: Second Train Coming Warning Sign: Demonstration Projects. To develop a framework or template for collecting data to In addition, TCRP has a number of ongoing safety related be used to improve pedestrian and motorist safety along studies. These include TCRP Projects D-9, "Transit Vehicles LRT alignments [Chapter 7], and Facilities on Streets and Highways," and D-10, "Audi- To identify and summarize pedestrian and motorist behav- ble Signals for Pedestrian Safety in Light Rail Transit Envi- iors [Chapter 2, Chapter 3], and ronments." TCRP Reports 17 and 69 led to the development To document best practices for improving pedestrian and of Chapter 10 of the MUTCD. Chapter 10 is intended as a motorist safety along light rail transit alignments [Chapter 2, reference for LRT designers and operators. Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6]. These research efforts, and others, looked at a number of systems, identified safety measures, and proposed safety The activities of this project were organized in two Phases, enhancements, but they did not include a systematic approach and framed by 12 Tasks defined by the TCRP. The original for evaluating existing safety improvement measures. New Phases and Tasks are reproduced below. The chapters that safety issues have emerged, or are likely to emerge, and these address the tasks are included in brackets. Some tasks are ad- issues also need to be evaluated. A review of the effectiveness dressed briefly in the text followed by more in-depth analysis of the safety measures identified in the previous research or results in the appendices. based on actual experience could provide before-and-after examples that affirm or disprove the safety benefits of the rec- ommendations made. However, the complete data required Phase I to conduct definitive studies of the effectiveness of LRT safety Task 1 measures are not readily available. In addition, it is currently very difficult to assemble com- Collect, review, and summarize published and unpub- plete and meaningful safety data in a time-efficient manner. lished information from U.S. and foreign LRT systems rel- Safety studies conducted by individual transit agencies have evant to safety measures, devices, and practices on LRT usually been local and ad-hoc, and often not coordinated or alignments including at-grade crossings and stations that conducted according to consistent procedures. The results will enhance safety for pedestrians, motor vehicles, and LRT are not available to researchers in a centralized repository. passengers [Chapter 2].