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TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 137 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Improving Pedestrian and Motorist Safety Along Light Rail Alignments

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS Ann August Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of MEMBERS Governments, Arlington John Bartosiewicz McDonald Transit Associates EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Michael Blaylock Jacksonville Transportation Authority MEMBERS Linda J. Bohlinger HNTB Corp. J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Raul Bravo Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Raul V. Bravo & Associates Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson John B. Catoe, Jr. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Gregory Cook Norfolk, VA Veolia Transportation William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Terry Garcia Crews David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond StarTran Kim R. Green Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of GFI GENFARE Virginia, Charlottesville Angela Iannuzziello Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN ENTRA Consultants John Inglish Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Utah Transit Authority Will Kempton, Randell Director, H. Iwasaki, California Director, DOT, California Sacramento DOT, Sacramento Jeanne W. Krieg Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Jonathan H. McDonald Stantec Consulting Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Gary W. McNeil Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City GO Transit Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Michael P. Melaniphy Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Motor Coach Industries Frank Otero Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., PACO Technologies Pitt Meadows, BC Keith Parker Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA VIA Metropolitan Transit Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Peter Rogoff FTA C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Jeffrey Rosenberg Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Amalgamated Transit Union Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Richard Sarles New Jersey Transit Corporation Michael Scanlon EX OFFICIO MEMBERS San Mateo County Transit District Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Beverly Scott Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT James Stem J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT United Transportation Union Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Frank Tobey George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York First Transit Matthew O. Tucker University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC North County Transit District James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Pam Ward Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Ottumwa Transit Authority Administration, U.S.DOT Alice Wiggins-Tolbert Parsons Brinckerhoff LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC William W. Millar APTA John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Officials, Washington, DC TRB Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, AASHTO Victor Mendez U.S.DOT FHWA William Victor M.W. Millar, Administrator, Mendez, President, American Public Federal Transportation Highway Association, Administration, U.S.DOTWashington, DC Jeffrey F.W. William Paniati, Acting Millar, Deputy President, Administrator American Publicand Executive Director, Transportation FederalWashington, Association, Highway Administration, DC TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Louis Sanders U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT APTA Peter Rogoff, Joseph Administrator, C. Szabo, Federal Administrator, Transit Federal Administration, Railroad U.S.DOT Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph Polly C. Szabo, Administrator, Trottenberg, Federal Assistant Secretary Railroad for Administration, Transportation U.S.DOT Policy, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Christopher W. Jenks Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, TRB U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2009. *Membership as of October 2009.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 137 Improving Pedestrian and Motorist Safety Along Light Rail Alignments Don Cleghorn Allison Clavelle Jonathan Boone Maurice Masliah I TRANS CONSULTING INC. Toronto, Canada Herbert S. Levinson New Haven, CT Subject Areas Public Transit Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 137 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project A-30 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4872 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-11808-8 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve Library of Congress Control Number 2009939561 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to 2009 Transportation Research Board adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT PERMISSION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report published or copyrighted material used herein. 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes from CRP. research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, NOTICE facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research administrative practices. Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act purposes and resources of the National Research Council. of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or Committee defines funding levels and expected products. manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 137 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor TCRP PROJECT A-30 PANEL Field of Operations Rongfang "Rachel" Liu, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ (Chair) Susan Dolemba, Utah Transit Authority, Midvale, UT Jose I. Farran, ADAVANT Consulting, San Francisco, CA Scott Friedson, Arizona DOT, Phoenix, AZ Isabel Kaldenbach, Operation Lifesaver, Arlington, VA Gerold C. LaBorde, King County (WA) Metro, Seattle, WA Joseph North, New Jersey Transit Authority, Newark, NJ Vahak Petrossian, Glendale, CA Jerry Powers, FTA Liaison Terrell Williams, FTA Liaison Richard Pain, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Gwen Chisholm Smith Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 137: Improving Pedestrian and Motorist Safety Along Light Rail Transit Align- ments addresses pedestrian and motorist behaviors contributing to light rail transit (LRT) safety and describes mitigating measures available to improve safety along LRT alignments. The report also includes recommendations to facilitate the compilation of accident data in a coordinated and homogeneous manner across LRT systems. Finally, the report provides a catalog of existing and innovative safety devices, safety treatments, and practices to use along LRT alignments. The results of this research may be useful to transit operators, consultants, and state safety oversight agencies. Previous light rail safety related research, including TCRP Report 17: Integration of Light Rail Transit into City Streets, TCRP Report 69: Light Rail Service: Pedestrian and Vehicular Safety, and TCRP Research Results Digest 5: Second Train Coming Warning Sign Demonstra- tion Projects, looked at a number of safety systems, identified safety measures, and proposed safety enhancements--but they did not provide a systematic approach for the evaluation of current measures. New safety issues, or at least the potential for new safety issues, have arisen and need to be evaluated. Additionally, a review of the actual effectiveness of the pro- posed measures identified in the previous research based on actual experience provides before-and-after examples that could affirm or disprove their safety benefits. In addition, it is currently difficult to compile meaningful safety data in a time-efficient manner. Individual transit agencies have conducted localized safety studies on an ad-hoc basis; however, these studies have not been coordinated or conducted following consistent procedures. A system of compiling safety data is needed to enable transit agencies across the country to report comparable safety data. Under TCRP Project A-30, iTRANS Consulting Inc. was asked to develop a framework or template for collecting data to be used to improve pedestrian and motorist safety along light rail transit alignments. To fulfill this project objective, the research team did the fol- lowing: (1) collected, reviewed, and summarized published and unpublished information from U.S. and foreign LRT systems relevant to safety measures, devices, and practices on LRT alignments, including at-grade crossings and stations with enhanced safety for pedes- trians, motor vehicles, and LRT passengers; (2) conducted a survey of U.S. LRT agencies to gather information on the type of data that are collected after an LRT accident (This infor- mation includes a description of the type of accident data provided to the state safety over- sight agency, as well as the accident information provided to FTA and other regulatory agen- cies.); (3) conducted a survey of LRT systems in North America to identify innovative control devices, applications, and unique operating environments and practices related to

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light rail safety that have been implemented, including enforcement and educational prac- tices; (4) developed a methodology to perform risk analysis for safety measures at LRT align- ments; and (5) using the information gathered from the data collected, identified success- ful elements and new technologies used to improve light rail safety, described possible factors (including pedestrian and motorist behavior) contributing to LRT safety, and rec- ommended ways to facilitate the compilation of accident data in a coordinated and consis- tent manner across LRT systems.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 8 Chapter 1 Introduction 8 Research Problem Statement 8 Research Objectives 8 Phase I 9 Phase II 10 Research Issues 10 Research Approach 10 Structure of Final Report 12 Chapter 2 State of the Practice Methodology and Summary 12 Methodology 12 Literature Review 13 Survey of Agencies 13 Telephone Consultations 14 Site Visits 15 State of the Practice Summary 15 LRT Exposure to Pedestrians and Motor Vehicles 17 Top LRT Safety Issues 19 LRT Safety Treatments 20 Summary 21 Chapter 3 LRT Safety Data Available from Local Transit Agencies, SSOs, and the NTD 21 Data Collection and Transfer between FTA/NTD, SSO, and Local Transit Agencies 22 Collision Data Available, Requested, and Received 22 National Transit Database 23 Purpose of NTD Safety Data Collection 23 Data Collected by NTD 24 The NTD Database 25 NTD Data Quality Issues 31 Analysis of the NTB Database 41 SSO Agencies 41 Purpose of SSO Agency Safety Data Collection 42 Data Collected by SSO Agencies 42 SSO Databases 43 SSO Data Quality Issues 43 Local Transit Agencies 43 Purpose of Local Transit Agency Data Collection 43 Data Collected by Local Transit Agencies 45 Analysis of Local Transit Agency Collision Data

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45 Comparison of Databases 46 Comparison of Local Transit Agency and SSO Agency Databases 48 Comparison of Local Transit Agency and NTD Databases 50 Comparison of SSO and NTD Databases 50 Conclusion 52 Chapter 4 Safety Issues and Their Treatment 52 Root Causes and Contributing Factors 53 Determining LRT Safety Issues and Identifying Treatments 53 Studying LRT Safety Issues and Treatments 53 Determining the Highest Risk LRT Safety Issues 54 Building a Safety Analysis Toolkit 55 General Treatment Strategies 56 Chapter 5 LRT Catalog of Safety Treatments 56 Introduction to the Catalog of LRT Safety Treatments 57 LRT Safety Treatments Included in the Catalog 58 Safety Treatment Information Included in the Catalog 59 Chapter 6 LRT Risk Analysis Methodology 59 Introduction to the Concept of Safety Audits 59 Design Stage 60 Preliminary Design Stage 60 Detailed Design 60 In-use Stage 61 Practical Methodology for Safety Audits 61 Select the Safety Audit Team 61 Provide Background Information to the Safety Audit Team 61 Conduct a Pre-audit Meeting to Review Project Information 61 Assess/Analyze Background Information 61 Perform Site Inspections under Various Conditions 61 Prepare and Submit Safety Audit Report 62 Conduct Safety Audit Completion Meeting 62 Prepare Formal Response by Project Owner/Design Team 62 Incorporate Safety Audit Findings into Project 62 Existing Standards 62 DoD Standard Practice for System Safety (MIL-STD-882D) 63 LRT Risk Assessment Checklist 66 Chapter 7 Improving the Accident Data Collection Process 66 Transit Agency Data 66 Agencies with Multiple Accident Report Forms 67 Incident versus Accident Report Forms 67 Categories of Information Included in Accident Reports 70 Supervisory Agency Data 70 SSO Agency Data 70 FTA/NTD Data 71 Redundancies in Data Collection 71 A Potential National Standard Accident Data Collection Procedure 71 Standardized Electronic LRT Incident Reporting 71 Structure of Reporting Forms 72 Record Exposure Data

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72 LRT Crossing Database 72 Summary of Information to Be Included in the LRT Collision Database and Reporting Form 74 References 75 Appendix A LRT Catalog of Safety Treatments 147 Appendix B Literature Review--State of the Knowledge 147 Appendix C1 Transit Agencies and Contact Information of the Persons Who Participated in the Survey 147 Appendix C2 Treatment Usage as Reported by the Survey Participants 147 Appendix C3 Survey Responses 147 Appendix D Technical Memoranda 147 Appendix E Review of the Accident Data Collection Process