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58 arrangements have been developed for all kinds of reasons portation and the institutional arrangements created to sup- and in all kinds of forums, depending on the characteristics port freight transportation. The changes necessary to deal with of their members. Some arrangements have been more suc- these challenges in large part relate to specific program ele- cessful than others; some have served specific purposes and ments (e.g., statutory requirements, program funding eligibil- then ceased to exist while others have evolved and taken on ity requirements, multi-jurisdictional regions, effective use of new challenges. Effective institutional arrangements can en- performance measures, and overall Federal leadership). Most hance the freight transportation system, ensuring that stake- existing or new institutional arrangements will deal with these holders are involved in the policy, planning, programming, changes the same way they or their predecessors have in the and operations activities. This is critical to the success of the past--through effective collaboration, coordination, commu- freight transportation system--at the local, regional, state, nication, consensus building, and stakeholder involvement; and national levels--because freight mobility cuts across all strong leadership (champions); effective use of public-private modes of transportation, affects communities and the envi- partnerships; and efficient project implementation programs. ronment, and spans jurisdictional boundaries, creating an An approach based on these general principles and guidelines environment that is not well managed by one geographically ensures that the resulting institutional arrangement is based on specific public agency. a customized and agreed-on mission. The research completed for this project focused almost ex- clusively on the successes and failures of institutional arrange- 5.3 Conclusions ments implemented in the United States. The guidelines pre- sented herein are designed to facilitate the development and This report is a resource to help groups of stakeholders eval- implementation of an institutional arrangement. These guide- uate how potential development of an institutional arrange- lines are not intended to provide step-by-step instructions on ment can help them achieve a common goal. The guidelines how to develop a successful institutional arrangement, but to provide specific recommendations based on existing institu- identify key activities that should be considered and used to tional arrangements and are designed to address various develop a customized approach. functions, geographic boundaries, and legal structures. In ad- The guidelines are intended to apply to existing institutional dition, these guidelines are designed to be useful for future in- arrangements as well as new institutional arrangements that stitutional arrangement needs as well as those in place today. may emerge in the future. Continued globalization of the econ- Key success factors, challenges, and lessons learned have been omy, current economic hardships, limited funding, shifts in summarized to support successful use of the guidelines. In transportation program priorities, climate change--these fac- many instances, such factors affected the development of the tors and more will continue to strain and affect freight trans- guidelines.