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10 Guidebook for Conducting Airport User Surveys instrument is critical, because the wording and sequence of questions will affect the responses that are obtained. Consideration needs to be given to how the survey will be performed, includ- ing how respondents will be selected and whether they will be interviewed by survey staff or com- plete a questionnaire themselves. Once an initial design of the questionnaire has been completed, it should be pre-tested on potential respondents to make sure that the wording of the questions is clear and the survey gen- erates the desired information. The results of the pre-test may call for some redesign of the instrument and possibly another pre-test. When the questionnaire has been finalized, a pilot test is usually performed to test the survey procedures in the field. Typically, the pilot test will involve a representative group of the survey interviewers, or field staff, and should be performed well enough in advance of the full survey that any logistical issues can be resolved before the survey gets underway. After the survey data collection has been completed, the data will generally need to be checked and cleaned to correct identifiable errors (e.g., misspellings) and determine whether to eliminate incomplete or invalid responses before the results are tabulated or analyzed. Depending on the length and nature of the questionnaire, data cleaning can involve a significant amount of work. However, this step is crucial to the quality of the results. In summary, the basic survey concepts are: Target population--a defined group of airport users for which information is required. Survey sample--a subgroup of the target population selected to provide the desired information. Sampling strategy--a strategy to reduce and control potential bias in the survey sample (i.e., the extent to which the characteristics or opinions of the sample differ from the target population). Questionnaire--the mechanism to collect information from the survey sample. Surveying method--the method used to collect information from the sampled respondents. Pre-test--testing of a questionnaire with a small number of potential respondents. Pilot test--testing of the entire survey process. Data cleaning--correction of identifiable errors and elimination of incomplete or invalid responses before the survey results are tabulated and analyzed. These concepts are dealt with in more depth in subsequent sections. 1.4 Main Survey Types and Methods Airport user surveys come in many types, each with its own set of goals and objectives. The main types considered in this guidebook are passenger surveys (Chapter 5), employee surveys (Chapter 6), tenant surveys (Chapter 7), surveys of area residents (Chapter 8), surveys of area businesses (Chapter 9), and air cargo surveys (Chapter 10). Passenger surveys are the most common type of airport user survey and tend to focus on pas- senger characteristics, passenger demands on facilities, or passenger satisfaction with the airport. Passenger surveys are used for airport planning and management. Employee surveys are typically conducted to measure satisfaction with airport facilities and services, obtain information for transportation or concession planning, and address issues such as communications and knowledge of airport procedures. Tenant surveys tend to focus on tenants' satisfaction with the airport as a landlord and on gathering information to help determine the economic impacts of the airport. Surveys of the general public can be undertaken for a variety of reasons. Perhaps the most common purposes are determining the public's perceptions of an airport, investigating the factors