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124 Guidebook for Conducting Airport User Surveys interviews can often be conducted by the same set of interviewers in periods when they are not busy with passengers. Costs for developing the questionnaire may also be lower as there will often be overlap between the employee and passenger versions. Costs will vary depending on the collection method, size of the sample (less so for Internet-based surveys), difficulty in developing employee lists (for a list-based approach), and local factors. How- ever, for a typical on-site airport satisfaction survey of around 150 employees at a small- to medium-sized airport using a two-page questionnaire and conducted by a contractor, costs will range from approximately: $10,000 to $15,000 for a stand-alone survey. $6,000 to $10,000 if conducted in conjunction with a passenger survey. Costs for large airport access surveys can be much greater. One airport sampling 3,000 employ- ees reported a cost of $80,000 for such a survey where questionnaires were handed out to employ- ees and collected by either drop box or return mail. Where the employee survey is being conducted in conjunction with a passenger survey, costs could be reduced by keeping differences in the questionnaire and data analysis to a minimum, and reporting results as a section in the report for the passenger survey. Reductions in the sample size and time spent setting up the survey will decrease the costs but will lead to reductions in the accu- racy of the results. When determining the scope and budget for an employee survey, note the pro- portion of users represented by employees and scale the budget accordingly. This proportion is usually relatively small, but at large hub airports, with airline crew bases, maintenance bases, and extensive cargo facilities, the ratio of average daily employees to average daily enplaning passengers can range from 25% to over 50%. At airline connecting hubs, the ratio of daily employee ground access trips to originating passenger access trips frequently approaches and in some cases exceeds 100% (Gosling, 2008). 6.7 Summary Employees make up a significant group of airport users and need to be considered when plan- ning airport facilities and services. Employee surveys are conducted for a variety of reasons, includ- ing assessing satisfaction with facilities and services, obtaining information for transportation or concession planning, or addressing employee-related issues such as communication and knowl- edge of airport procedures. Two approaches can be used: develop a comprehensive list of all employees on which to base the survey or conduct on-site intercept surveys. Questionnaires are usually self-completed, but an on-site intercept survey could collect responses through interviews. At smaller airports, using a list-based approach with mail, email, or employer distribution of questionnaires usually requires sampling all employees because of the high non- response rates. At larger airports and for on-site surveys, a sample of employees is selected, but the sample size is typically smaller than for passenger surveys because the surveyed population is smaller. Concession and satisfaction surveys of employees are often conducted in conjunction with passen- ger surveys, decreasing the costs and time involved.