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Surveys of Area Businesses 141 The budget for Internet surveys of area businesses will include survey design and planning, including the development of a list of businesses; questionnaire design, testing and loading onto a survey website; follow-up of non-respondents; data checking and analysis; and reporting and presentation of findings. (See Chapter 2 for a more detailed discussion of the budget.) Costs for an Internet survey with 10 to 20 questions and an initial response rate (before follow- up) of 40% are approximately: $10,000 for 100 businesses with only email follow-up of non-responses. $15,000 for 100 businesses with telephone and email follow-up of non-responses. $12,000 for 500 businesses with only email follow-up of non-responses. $15,000 for 1,000 businesses with only email follow-up of non-responses. Costs could be less if there is good cooperation from local business organizations or the ini- tial response rate is higher. However, costs could be higher if additional follow-up and analysis of non-responses is required. Depending on the response rates, the results may be of limited value without such additional follow-up and analysis, especially if estimates of total population values are required. Costs for conducting telephone surveys of businesses increase almost proportionally with sample size and are roughly two to three times the values for Internet surveys, and costs for in-person interviews are even higher. 9.7 Summary Surveys of area businesses and other organizations are typically conducted to obtain data for economic impact studies, air service development, or airport awareness studies. The assistance of local business organizations is very beneficial in promoting the survey, providing lists of busi- nesses, and improving the response rate. Internet surveys are by far the most cost-effective means of conducting such surveys, with follow-up of non-respondents by email and, budget permitting, by telephone. Telephone surveys are another option. Although more costly, they will likely result in better quality data. All businesses should be included in Internet surveys. For telephone surveys, it will only be pos- sible to survey a sample of businesses, and a stratified sample that includes a higher proportion of large businesses should be used. Non-response can cause significant bias in the results. Measures should be taken to improve the response rate and collect at least minimal data, so that appropri- ate weights can be developed for the data analysis.