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52 Guidebook for Conducting Airport User Surveys questions or attempt to answer questions that do not apply to them. The order of the ques- tions is one way to simplify the skip patterns. Branching is less of a concern with programma- ble hand-held electronic data collection devices, because the software handles the skips based on the responses to earlier questions. However, complexity can significantly increase the cost of the required programming. Another less technical suggestion is that the questionnaire should start with a question that is easy to answer and non-threatening, such as: "Did you travel to this airport by ground trans- portation to take this flight or are you connecting between flights?" This will help in getting the respondent's cooperation for the survey. 4.3.5 Translations In the case of surveys where respondents may have limited facility with English (or with the primary language of the area where the survey is being performed, if this is not English), consid- eration should be given to providing the questionnaire in other languages. This situation arises at airports serving bilingual or multilingual areas or at international airports, as discussed fur- ther in Section 4.8.3. It is preferable to have the translation performed by a native speaker of the language in question, because there may be subtle issues of usage that could affect how the ques- tions are interpreted. It is also desirable to have the resulting translation reviewed by an aviation specialist with knowledge of the language to make sure that the translator has understood the intent of the questions. The decision as to whether translations are necessary or worth providing will depend on the proportion of the target population who may have difficulty completing a survey in English. If this falls within the anticipated confidence interval for the survey as a whole, as discussed in Section 3.2, it may not be worth incurring the cost of the translations in order to include these users in the survey. However, even in this situation there may be other reasons for including non-English-speaking airport users in the survey, such as gathering information about foreign tourists. There are usually practical limits to the number of different languages that the questionnaire can be translated into, and the choice of languages will depend on the composition of the target market. Because the field staff may not be fluent enough in any of these languages to explain the nature of the survey, ask the questions, or understand the responses, the translated versions will most likely have to be self-completed. If so, a brief addition to the questionnaire may be neces- sary to explain its purpose, which in turn may change the layout of the questionnaire. It may be helpful to use colored paper to help the field staff distinguish between the different versions of the questionnaire. 4.4 Expected Data Collection Rate Factors affecting the rate at which interviewers can collect responses include the following: Questionnaire design--length, format, and types of questions. Types of information collected--opinions usually take longer than current factual information. Surveying method--intercept interview or self-completed. Competency of interviewers--good interviewers can complete significantly more surveys. Airport layout--time needed to move between gates or between terminals, considering likely congestion and the availability of moving walkways and inter-terminal transportation. Refusal rates--affect the number of potential respondents who must be approached to obtain a completed response.