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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 26 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Guidebook for Conducting Airport User Surveys

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg James Crites Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond John K. Duval Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Beverly Municipal Airport Virginia, Charlottesville Kitty Freidheim Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Freidheim Consulting Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Jacksonville Aviation Authority Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Federal Aviation Administration Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Carolyn Motz Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Hagerstown Regional Airport Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., Richard Tucker Pitt Meadows, BC Huntsville International Airport Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO EX OFFICIO MEMBERS C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Sabrina Johnson Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Air Transport Association of America Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport Executives Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Transportation Research Board University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Christopher W. Jenks Administration, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2009. *Membership as of October 2009.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 26 Guidebook for Conducting Airport User Surveys D. C. Biggs M. A. Bol J. Baker JACOBS CONSULTANCY Ottawa, ON G. D. Gosling AVIATION SYSTEM CONSULTING, LLC Berkeley, CA J. D. Franz JD FRANZ RESEARCH, INC. Sacramento, CA AND J. P. Cripwell J. P. CRIPWELL ASSOCIATES Ottawa, ON Subject Areas Planning and Administration Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 26 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 03-04 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-11812-5 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2009941124 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2009 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 26 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-04 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Douglas Mansel, Port of Oakland, Oakland, CA (Chair) Senanu Ashiabor, Dowling Associates Inc., Oakland, CA Jennifer M. Kipp, Port of Seattle, Seattle, WA Joseph D. Navarrete, HNTB Corporation, Arlington, VA (formerly) David Rubin, Ridgewood, NJ Marc Turpin, Greater Toronto Airports Authority, Toronto, ON Lori Pagnanelli, FAA Liaison Patrick Sullivan, FAA Liaison Kimberly Fisher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 03-04 by Jacobs Consultancy Canada Inc.; Aviation System Consulting, LLC; JD Franz Research, Inc.; and J. P. Cripwell Associates. Jacobs Consultancy was the contractor for this study. The project director was Matthew Bol of Jacobs Consultancy, replaced by David Biggs of Jacobs Consultancy when Mr. Bol retired toward the end of the project. The co-principal investigators were David Biggs and Geoff Gosling of Aviation System Consulting, LLC. Other authors of the report were Jennifer Franz of JD Franz Research, Inc.; Paul Cripwell of J. P. Cripwell Associates; and Jim Baker of Jacobs Consultancy.

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FOREWORD By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 26: Guidebook for Conducting Airport User Surveys provides methods and useful information for conducting effective user surveys at airports. The guidebook intro- duces the basic concepts of survey sampling and the steps involved in planning and imple- menting a survey; describes the different types of airport user surveys; and provides guid- ance on how to design a survey and analyze its results. This guidebook will be of value to airport operators, planners, designers, and other stakeholders that need to survey airport users to obtain useful information to plan and operate their facilities appropriately and efficiently. Airport facilities can include all aspects of airport terminal buildings, parking lot operations, surface transportation, food and retail services, and employee accommo- dations, among others. ACRP Report 26 complements several ACRP airport terminal designrelated reports. Specifically, ACRP Report 23: Airport Passenger-Related Processing Rates Guidebook and ACRP Report 25: Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, among others in progress, provide a set of guidance tools to assist airport operators and their planning teams. In addi- tion, the contractor's final report for ACRP Project 03-04 documents the research process that was used to develop ACRP Report 26 and is available on the TRB website (www.trb.org) by searching for "ACRP 03-04". Airport user surveys are the primary source of information for airport operators and other agencies on airport user characteristics and airport ground access mode use, and they play a critical role in airport planning and air travel forecasting. The planning, development, conduct and analysis of airport user surveys can be complex, expensive, and subject to a number of pitfalls. For example, surveys are often conducted at infrequent intervals and by different contractors, and often a lack of continuity exists between successive surveys for the same airport. The lack of comparability between surveys at airports in multi-airport regions can be a particular problem for analyzing airport selection decisions or performing studies of traffic leakage to airports in adjacent regions. Also, a number of technical issues arise with airport surveys that are often not well under- stood. These issues include selection of sample size and appropriate sample design; how to handle responses from large parties, such as tour groups or sports teams that have been encountered in the survey; and how to appropriately weight individual survey responses in presenting the survey results. While there is a considerable body of knowledge on sound survey methodology in general, the airport environment presents many unique situations and challenges. The specific guidance on airport user surveys provided by this guidebook should be particularly helpful to organizations undertaking such surveys. The objective of ACRP Project 03-04 was to provide guidance for planning, designing, conducting, and analyzing airport user surveys. The research was conducted by Jacobs

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Consultancy of Ottawa, Ontario, with Aviation System Consulting, LLC; JD Franz Research, Inc.; and J. P. Cripwell Associates. To meet the project objective, a survey of 216 airports, metropolitan planning organizations, state aviation organizations, and consulting and survey firms was conducted by the research team to obtain information on their experience with airport user surveys. As expected, the main reason for conducting surveys was found to be in order to obtain information on air passenger/airport user characteristics. Follow- up interviews were then conducted with 13 organizations to obtain more information about the survey practices and experiences. Guidance was prepared based on these interviews, the experience of the project team, and other information collected during the research.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 7 Chapter 1 Introduction 7 1.1 Purpose of This Guidebook 7 1.2 Role of Surveys in Airport Planning, Development, and Management 8 1.3 Survey Concepts 10 1.4 Main Survey Types and Methods 11 1.5 How to Use This Guidebook 12 Chapter 2 Planning a Survey 12 2.1 Defining the Purpose 13 2.2 Selecting the Survey Method 16 2.3 Survey Frequency and Timing 18 2.4 External Agencies 19 2.5 Preparing the Survey Budget 20 2.6 Survey Planning Team 22 2.7 Preliminary Schedule and Target Dates 23 2.8 Survey Location and Security Clearance 24 2.9 Contracting External Resources 26 2.10 Summary 27 Chapter 3 Statistical Concepts 28 3.1 Concepts of Census and Sample Surveys 28 3.2 Statistical Accuracy and Confidence Intervals 31 3.3 Sampling Methods 36 3.4 Sample Size 43 3.5 Weighting 44 3.6 Summary 45 Chapter 4 Survey Design 45 4.1 Survey Population 48 4.2 Sampling Strategy and Plan 49 4.3 Questionnaire Design and Structure 52 4.4 Expected Data Collection Rate 53 4.5 Survey Logistics 55 4.6 Selection and Training of Field Staff 58 4.7 Pre-Tests and Pilot Tests 60 4.8 Maximizing Response Rates 63 4.9 Use of Electronic Data Collection Devices 68 4.10 Data Entry and Quality Control 69 4.11 Analysis and Reporting of Survey Results 71 4.12 Post-Survey Analysis: Lessons Learned 71 4.13 Documenting the Survey 72 4.14 Summary

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73 Chapter 5 Air Passenger Surveys 73 5.1 Purpose of the Survey 74 5.2 Survey Methodology 90 5.3 Sample Size, Survey Coverage, and Timing 98 5.4 Questionnaire Wording and Length 101 5.5 Weighting Survey Responses 106 5.6 Measures to Obtain Adequate Response 106 5.7 Location-Specific Guidelines 107 5.8 Information on Greeters and Well-Wishers 108 5.9 Groundside Surveys 114 5.10 Checklists 115 5.11 Survey Budget 117 5.12 Summary 119 Chapter 6 Employee Surveys 119 6.1 Purpose of the Survey and the Data to Be Collected 120 6.2 Survey Methodology 121 6.3 Sampling Methodology 122 6.4 Questionnaire Wording and Length 123 6.5 Measures to Obtain Adequate Response 123 6.6 Survey Budget 124 6.7 Summary 125 Chapter 7 Tenant Surveys 125 7.1 Purpose of the Survey and the Data to Be Collected 125 7.2 Survey Methodology 127 7.3 Sampling Methodology 128 7.4 Questionnaire Wording and Length 128 7.5 Measures to Obtain Adequate Response 129 7.6 Survey Budget 129 7.7 Mystery Shopper 131 7.8 Summary 132 Chapter 8 Surveys of Area Residents 132 8.1 Purpose of the Survey and the Data to Be Collected 132 8.2 Survey Methodology 132 8.3 Sampling, Coverage, and Timing 135 8.4 Questionnaire Wording and Length 135 8.5 Measures to Obtain Adequate Response 136 8.6 Survey Budget 136 8.7 Summary 137 Chapter 9 Surveys of Area Businesses 137 9.1 Purpose of the Survey and the Data to Be Collected 137 9.2 Survey Methodology 139 9.3 Sampling Methodology 139 9.4 Questionnaire Wording and Length 140 9.5 Measures to Obtain Adequate Response 140 9.6 Survey Budget 141 9.7 Summary

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142 Chapter 10 Cargo Surveys 142 10.1 Need for Air Cargo Data 142 10.2 Collection of Air Cargo Data 143 10.3 Survey Methods 144 10.4 Summary 145 References 146 Glossary and Acronym List 153 Bibliography A-1 Appendix A Airport User Surveys: Summary of Research B-1 Appendix B Sample Sizes, Sample Estimates, and Confidence Intervals C-1 Appendix C Material and Equipment Checklists for Air Passenger Intercept Surveys D-1 Appendix D Sample Training Agenda E-1 Appendix E High-Speed Scanning Technology F-1 Appendix F Sample Questionnaires for Passenger Surveys G-1 Appendix G Sample Questionnaires for Groundside Surveys H-1 Appendix H Sample Questionnaires for Employee Surveys I-1 Appendix I Sample Questionnaire for Tenant Surveys J-1 Appendix J Sample Questionnaire for Area Residents Surveys K-1 Appendix K Sample Questionnaire for Roadside Driver Cargo Surveys