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New Approaches To Ecological Surveys Summary During all phases of the transportation planning, development, and operations process environmental data are needed. Whether the phase of planning involves long-range plans 20 years into the future, or day-to-day operations, information related to the environment is needed to prepare environmental documents, obtain permits, design and construct road improvements, mitigate or avoid impacts, monitor mitigation, and conduct maintenance activities. The objectives of this synthesis were to survey transportation and natural resource professionals familiar with transportation systems to identify ecological survey needs related to transportation activities and to identify technologies, techniques, and inno- vative methods to fulfill those needs. These technologies, techniques, and methods, col- lectively called new approaches, include data collection, its analysis and delivery, how it can be used in planning and operations, and cooperative working relations. The audience for this synthesis includes transportation professionals responsible for planning, design- ing, constructing, operating, and maintaining transportation projects and the road cor- ridor in an environmentally and fiscally responsible manner, as well as professionals in natural resource agencies and other organizations who work with transportation profes- sionals in departments of transportation (DOTs) on these issues. Environmental surveys in this synthesis are best described as ecological surveys; they do not consider archeological resources that are typically organized under environmental surveys. Ecological surveys taken as a whole convey a wide spectrum of information on the natural world from species to climate change. The synthesis is based on an electronic mail (e-mail) survey conducted in early 2008 that was sent to all state DOTs and state fish and wildlife agencies, and concurrent literature and new initiatives searches. Personnel in DOTs and fish and wildlife agencies who were most familiar with environmental survey needs of transportation agencies were asked to describe the most pressing unmet environmental survey needs, and the recent advances they were familiar with to help meet these survey needs. A rich response of ideas came from 103 respondents representing the following: 49 states; 46 state DOTs (92% of all state DOTs); 37 state fish and wildlife agencies (74% of all states); three state Natural Heritage programs; the U.S. Forest Service; and the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. In this report, responses concerning ecological survey needs and new approaches were paired under the most appropriate phase in the transportation planning, development, and operations process in which they would be used. The phases and their concurrent needs and new approaches presented in chapter two include: (1) Sys- tems Long-Range Planning, (2) Project Development, (3) Construction, and (4) Mainte- nance and Operations. Within each of these transportation phases, an ecological hierarchy was used. Simply put, survey needs for species, and then ecosystems and landscapes were addressed in a standard manner for each phase of transportation planning, development, and operations.

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2 Systems Long-Range Planning The ecological survey approaches for the systems long-range planning level address broad- scale planning in space (landscape scale) and time (20 to 30 years before projects). Ecologi- cal survey needs and approaches at this stage are typically those organized and identified in formats that look at natural system features in broad terms, cover large areas, and possess features whose time limits do not expire quickly so they can be referenced for years. Data in the form of maps, models, tables, and research reports are helpful during these coarser scales of long-range planning. Planning professionals have a need to understand the patterns of plant and animal distributions in the general planning areas, what the natural vegetative communities may be, and whether wetlands and other sensitive ecosystems are present. There are also needs to look at overall ecosystem-level effects of the proposed transportation plans, such as fragmentation of habitat and potential pollutants and climate change. In this report, potential species' effects, landscape connectivity, landcover mapping, and overall ecological effects are addressed at this phase. Species Presence Survey Needs and New Approaches Long-range planning needs for species' surveys include species maps, potential distribution models, and overall planning documents that can assist with general wildlife and plant dis- tribution information. The greatest needs mentioned by respondents for this phase of plan- ning were those for early planning of surveys and guidelines that help prompt surveys years ahead of schedules. Early planning helps surveys to be scheduled at the correct time of year to detect the species of concern, and can produce results that are available to transportation planners with enough time before project development to include conservation measures. New approaches to species survey needs during long-range planning revealed during this study included the following: Considering ecological systems (and thus species) earlier than traditional approaches in long-range planning in accordance with the 2005 Transportation Act SAFETEA-LU; Predicting wildlife and plant distribution through maps, models, and the use of exist- ing reports such as State Wildlife Action Plans; and Predicting wildlife and plant distribution and biotic and abiotic interactions to better understand what is happening on the landscapes where these distributions and interac- tions occur, typically using geographic information systems (GIS) tools, and often in approaches related to the Eco-Logical planning model. Ecosystems and Landscapes Survey and Analyses Needs and New Approaches An overall theme among responses was the need for understanding what ecological attributes are present at the ecosystem and landscape scale before project-level planning. Surveying at these larger scales is difficult, and relies heavily on mapping analyses that seek to extract data from satellite and aerial data, surveying and monitoring in scientific manners that allow for greater representation of a larger area, and on GIS-based modeling approaches to predict potential occurrences as well as impacts. These approaches highlight the change in the scale of ecological surveys from concerns limited to a specific area before potential development to the analyzing the landscape over greater time scales far in advance of a potential project. New approaches that directly address the ecosystem-level needs and that were learned about in the course of this study include those that either address cumulative impacts or tools to address the ecological effects of potential projects. A new approach to cumulative impacts--a cumulative effects analysis method--was developed by the Colorado DOT. The University of MassachusettsAmherst approach to conservation planning with the Conser- vation Assessment and Prioritization System is another new approach to assess connectivity

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3 and fragmentation of potential projects. New approaches to climate change include several state initiatives, reports, and books, such as the 2008 National Research Council's Commit- tee on Climate Change and the U.S. Transportation's Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Transportation. GIS data are tremendously important to long-term planning and all other stages of the transportation planning, development, and operations process. GIS ecological survey needs and new approaches were a major part of this synthesis. A common method in GIS is landcover mapping which displays vegetation on the ground by means of GIS technolo- gies. The data are commonly used to predict ecosystem and species occurrences. The GIS data needs that respondents of the survey indicated were important to long-range planning included: The need to coordinate and cooperate on data sharing, such as the exchange of land- cover maps among agencies. The need for uniform, nationwide survey methods for gathering and storing remote- sensed data. The need for methods of data sharing that enhance accessibility to data with relative ease of use. The desire to have data in one central location. The desire to have data that are kept current and are maintained. The desire to have a one-stop place on the Internet for permitting processes as well as basic data. Coordination and cooperation among state agencies are occurring across the United States and in several states where examples were given in the survey responses. These examples included but were not limited to Michigan's cooperative approaches, and how Maryland's working relations have been aided by the development of the GIS-based Green Infrastructure Project. Examples of GIS-based Internet sites to assist with environmen- tal data and methods of integration include the FHWA's website on Planning and Envi- ronmental Linkages, which assists in strengthening planning while protecting ecological concerns. Standardized approaches to data collection and storage typically are developed by agencies and organizations working at the national level, such as NatureServe, the GIS software company Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), and the U.S. Geo- logical Survey (USGS). Connectivity analyses can provide important data on areas where aquatic and terrestrial wildlife need to move over short- and long-range distances. Twenty state agencies respond- ing to the survey expressed the need to identify landscape linkages or wildlife corridors (largely for mammals) to avoid, minimize, or mitigate transportation corridors that may bisect these linkages. This was the second most often quoted need of the entire survey. Aquatic systems connectivity is another important environmental concern for long-range plans. Seven agencies identified the need to examine and plan for aquatic connectivity. Early planning for ecological systems also involves understanding the local and regional efforts conducted to map and plan for conservation and development. New approaches involving connectivity mapping include the following: State efforts to map wildlife linkages statewide and not only along transportation corridors, such as Arizona's Wildlife Linkages Assessment; Efforts to assess options under different planning scenarios with a GIS-based system, such as the Conservation Assessment and Prioritization System; Efforts to standardize data collection and sharing, such as a western states initiative to map wildlife corridors over 19 states through the Western Governors' Association; and Statewide approaches to identifying, prioritizing, and replacing blocked aquatic pas- sages such as Washington State's program.

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4 Local and regional planning efforts that use new approaches include consensus-building methods to bring people together to plan for conservation and make the data fully available, such as the Linking Conservation and Transportation Planning Workshops, sponsored by the FHWA, NatureServe, and Defenders of Wildlife. Project Development During project-level planning and development, ecological survey needs and new approaches become more specific than in long-range planning. Ecological survey needs in large part have been identified by the regulatory requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act, which are initiated at this stage. Regardless of the regulatory reasons, any project development initiates the need for environmental surveys that evaluate a specific area for potential occur- rences and effects to species, ecosystems, and landscapes. These surveys address specific places where plant and wildlife species may occur to determine their presence and distribu- tion, refer to maps of terrestrial and aquatic linkages for species and process movement, and identify areas where specific ecosystems are located, such as wetlands and sensitive areas. Species Presence, Distribution, and Health Survey Needs and New Approaches The project development phase is when the highest level of need exists to understand species presence, distribution in specific places, population numbers, and the overall health of present populations. Survey respondents most often described survey needs for species at the project level than at any other time during the transportation planning process. Needs included the need to determine species presence or absence in a timely manner, as well as methods to better determine a population's size and how the population is distributed on the landscape. Many new approaches to address species presence include standards for gathering data, such as: The Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies' new handbook on monitoring for amphibians and reptiles Analyses of the genetics of populations on either side of a road, such as Arizona's stud- ies of pronghorn isolation among roads Technologies to detect species, such as sonic tag detectors in fish Population studies of wildlife near roads. Some states have environmental or ecological survey manuals and guidebooks to help standardize such methods. Broad-Level Ecosystems and Landscape Survey Needs and New Approaches At the project development phase, data needed to address ecosystems and landscapes include: Data on the presence of sensitive ecosystems such as wetlands Specific connectivity areas for terrestrial wildlife and aquatic connectivity of streams and wetlands Methods of bringing together plans, maps, and data from local and regional scales. Wetlands appear to be the most important ecosystems for consideration of data during project development and probably all planning phases. Eleven agencies identified their con- cerns for wetland ecosystem survey needs. These comments included the need for better mapping, better understanding of the entire ecosystem function of a stream or lake, bet- ter methods for restoring wetlands, the need to assess chemical alterations to aquatic sys- tems from roads, and the needs for surveys for streams and wetlands that are somewhat unusual compared with the typical definition, often those that are more ephemeral or unique to a certain area. Pollution considerations were also important; 14 agencies discussed the

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5 need to better evaluate the effects of noise or salt on species, and waterborne pollutants in aquatic systems, all stemming from the transportation system, its construction, traffic, and maintenance. Connectivity considerations were also important to respondents. The need for the installation of more wildlife crossings and research to determine the effectiveness of these crossings was mentioned by 27 agencies. This was the most often quoted need of the entire survey. Eleven agencies noted the need to map fish connectivity and install fish passages. New approaches to these ecosystem and landscape-level survey needs include several studies, syntheses, and approaches. Scientists are developing methods to use aerial photos and remote-sensed imagery to evaluate ecosystems, including wetlands, for specific attri- butes. Such a method was developed by Booth et al. in 2007 using software analyses of aerial photos of riparian areas. Two noise syntheses have been conducted to help explore approaches to deal with noise pollution on wildlife [Kaseloo and Tyson's Synthesis of Noise Effects on Wildlife Populations (2006) and Dooling and Popper's "The Effects of Highway Noise on Birds" (2007)]. New approaches to dealing with wildlife connectivity and the concurrent problem of animalvehicle collisions (a-v-c) include several NCHRP reports recently released that address both wildlife crossings and a-v-c data collection and storage (NCHRP Synthesis 370 and NCHRP Report 615). A new approach to aquatic connectivity includes the use of Passive Integrated Transponders tags to monitor fish movement through culverts. A new regional planning approach includes research at Mississippi State Univer- sity using remote sensing and spatial information to assist in streamlining environmen- tal and planning processes (National Consortium for Remote Sensing in Transportation Streamlining and Planning Processes at Mississippi State University). Construction In the construction phase of transportation planning, the need for environmental data is at a fine scale, measured in just a few meters, typically to understand what animals and plants may be affected by construction activities. Species Survey Needs and New Approaches During construction, the need to learn of species' presence is typically for wildlife with nests or movement near the area to make sure they have not entered the area since con- struction began, and for sensitive and invasive species of plants. The need to track wildlife movement or detect their presence in the area is the same as those for species' detections at the project level (this is also true for the newly developing approaches). One difference with previous transportation phases is the need to track vegetation and sensitive species' locations. A recent publication sponsored by AASHTO, "Environmental Stewardship Prac- tices, Policies, and Procedures for Road Construction and Maintenance," presented new approaches for environmental considerations during construction and is the most appro- priate research publication for these concerns. New innovations also include tracking the locations of rare species or invasive species (particularly plants) through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. These GPS monitors mounted on equipment can alert operators to times when species are approaching an area of concern. For more infor- mation, see chapter three, Case Study 5. Ecosystem and Landscape Scale Needs and New Approaches Most ecosystem and landscape-scale needs for environmental information at the construc- tion phase are for information pertaining to wetlands nearby. Respondents mentioned three ecosystem-level environmental survey needs that could be applied to the construction phase. These needs related to the following: (1) streams and their inhabitants affected by noise and

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6 pile driving, and the effects of in-water work; (2) jurisdictional wetlands and their documen- tation; and (3) water quality related to in-stream flows and pollutants. The new approaches presented in this section address water connectivity (flow), construction and engineering for fluvial geomorphology characteristics, a thermal imaging approach, and a way to track a proj- ect's ability to comply with commitments. Hydroacoustic monitoring of aquatic ecosystems is a recent method used to help determine construction impacts on aquatic systems. Water qual- ity and hydrology can also be addressed through analyses conducted by computer programs such as GISHydro. Maintenance and Operations In the operations and maintenance phase, wildlife, plants, ecosystems, and the greater natu- ral processes that are affected by things as small as lawnmowers and as large as climate change need to be evaluated with respect to daily operations and maintenance of transporta- tion systems. The ecological survey needs and approaches in this phase typically address the following: Evaluate whether wildlife is using transportation infrastructure, such as bridges Evaluate whether wildlife is using the mitigation created for it Evaluate whether mitigation areas are functioning as expected Identify locations of sensitive species of plants to avoid mowing, herbicides, and de- icing impacts Identify environmental changes in species, ecosystems, and processes as a result of climate change Species Survey Needs and New Approaches Species survey needs during daily operations include the need to determine whether wildlife are located near transportation structures, such as bridge nesting, and to assist in managing wanted and unwanted plants, such as endangered and invasive species. Wildlife and fish miti- gation structures need to be monitored to ascertain their effectiveness during these everyday stages. Vegetation management accounts for a large part of maintenance activities. Agencies need to be able to ascertain the extent of invasive plant species, manage for them, and deter- mine the presence of rare species and manage for them also. New approaches for wildlife and plant detection include survey technologies such as Anabat (a system designed to help users identify and survey bats by detecting and analyzing their echolocation calls), remote cameras, and aerial images combined with software analyses. Additional new approaches are often used in conjunction with cutting-edge technologies, such as GPS units in handheld devices and mounted on equipment (such as mentioned previously in construction), as well as GIS modeling to predict potential impacts. Ecosystems and Landscapes Survey Needs and New Approaches The maintenance and operations phases of transportation planning are the long-term stages during which everyday actions such as care for infrastructure and mitigation occur, and potential large-scale impacts are carried out and concurrent mitigation is conducted. The operations phase is when mitigation sites and structures are monitored for their perfor- mance. Five agency responses mentioned the need to assess restoration mitigation. In gen- eral, these needs pertained to the ability to determine the effectiveness of wetlands that were created for mitigation, and their ability to function and perform similarly to nearby wetlands that had not been affected. Under new approaches to ecosystem-scale concerns in everyday activities, several studies are presented that track progress in mitigation areas, such as the NCHRP publication, Developing Performance Data Collection Protocol for Stream Resto- ration. Agencies also need to be able to address pollution and climate change effects. The effects of pollution that come with road runoff from vehicles and de-icing agents need to

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7 be monitored for changes to populations of aquatic and terrestrial species and ecosystem effects. New approaches to address pollution issues are presented in research reports, such as the NCHRP report, Short-Term Monitoring for Compliance with Air Quality Standards. Climate change approaches were presented in the section Systems Long-Range Planning. Matrix of New Approaches The large number of new approaches investigated in this synthesis makes for a document that requires some time to access the needed information. A matrix of new approaches was created so users can quickly reference at what point in the transportation planning process they need information, and then cross-reference the types of new technologies that address species, and ecosystems, landscapes, and processes. Those references are then more fully detailed, referenced, and linked to appropriate websites when available, in References: Literature and Website Review. The matrix is presented in the following table. MATRIX OF STAGE OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING, OPERATIONS, AND MAINTENANCE AND THE TYPES OF TECHNOLOGIES, METHODS AND COOPERATION THAT COULD ASSIST WITH ECOLOGICAL SURVEYS AT THAT STAGE Ecosystems, Species/ Landscapes, and Type of Technology/Methods/Cooperation Taxa Processes Long-Range Planning Cyber Tracker x x Florida Efficient Transportation Decision Making Tool for GIS x x Data Sharing (under GIS and Case Studies) NatureServe (under GIS) x x Satellite Imagery (under GIS) x x Predictive Modeling (under Species) x x Google Earth (under GIS) x x FHWA Website on Planning and Environment Linkages x x (under GIS) Trust for Public Land GreenPrinting Web Service (under GIS) x National Geospatial Program (under GIS) x The National Map (under GIS) x USGS Landover maps (under GIS) x Wetlands Geodatabase (under GIS) x CAPS--Conservation and Prioritization System x x (under Ecosystems and GIS) USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Soil x x Mapping (under GIS) ESRI (under GIS) x x National Spatial Data Infrastructure (under GIS) x x Dr. Paul Beier's Corridor Design for identifying Wildlife x x Linkages (under GIS) Maryland's Green Infrastructure (under GIS) x x Washington Fish Passages (under Maps and x x Connectivity Plans) California Fish Passages (under Maps and Connectivity Plans) x x

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8 Ecosystems, Landscapes, and Type of Technology/Methods/Cooperation Species/ Taxa Processes Massachusetts Fish Passages (under Maps and Connectivity x x Plans) USFWS iPac Decision Support System Tool (under Local x and Regional Planning) Climate Change book: Potential Impacts of Climate Change x x on U.S. Transportation Goddard Space Flight Center Global Change Master Direc- x tory Website (under Climate Change) LIDAR Technology to Measure Topographic Change Data x Along Shorelines (under Climate Change) Landscope America (under Local and Regional Plans) x x CRAFT (under Local and Regional Planning) x x Community Viz (under Local and Regional Planning) x x "Eco-Logical" (under Local and Regional Planning and x x Case Study 6) NCHRP SHRP 2 (under Local and Regional Planning) x x Natural Capital Project (under Local and Regional x Planning) Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) (under Local and x Regional Planning) NatureServe Vista (under Local and Regional Planning) x x Metro Quest (under Local and Regional Planning) x Trust for Public Lands GreenPrinting (under Local and x Regional Planning) Project-Level Planning Trail Cameras (See Maintenance and Operations--Species) x Anabat (See Maintenance and Operations--Species) x VERTRAD (See Maintenance and Operations--Species) x Cyber Tracker x x GPS--PDA Handheld Devices w/Data (under Species and x x Case Studies) Visual Elastomers for Fish (under Species) x x Hydrophones for Fish and Streams (see x x Construction--Ecosystems) Sonic Tag Detectors (under Species) x x DNA Analyses (under Species) eBird (under Species) x x Amphibian and Reptile Monitoring Handbook (under x x Species) Occupancy Estimation Modeling Book (under species) x Thermal Imaging (under All Types of Biological x x Organization) VERTRAD--Vertical Beam Radar (under Species) x x Florida's Efficient Transportation Decision Making Tool x x for GIS Data Sharing (under GIS and Case Studies) Google Earth (under Species) x x

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9 Ecosystems, Landscapes, and Type of Technology/Methods/Cooperation Species/ Taxa Processes Northwest Habitat Institute (under Species) x x Utah's Geographic Transportation Environmental Assess- x x ment--GTEAS (under Species) NatureServe and Natural Heritage Programs (under x x Species) GPS Data on Wildlife Movement in Arizona (under x x Species) USGS National Fish Passage Program x x USFWS Service Fish Passage Support System x USFWS Fish Crossings x x Website www.wildlifeandroads.org, for Wildlife Crossings x x and Other Mitigation (under Landscape Connectivity) PDA Device for AnimalVehicle Collisions to Help Iden- tify Placement of Wildlife Crossings (under Landscape x x Connectivity) DeerVehicle Collisions Clearinghouse, x www.deercrash.com (under Landscape Connectivity) Digital Photograph Analyses [see Booth (under x Ecosystems)] Noise Effects Syntheses (under Ecosystems) x NCHRP Report 615 on Wildlife Crossings (under x x Landscape Connectivity) Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags (under x x Landscape Connectivity) Oregon Guidelines for Stream Crossings x x Maine Fish Passages Policy and Guidelines x x Massachusetts River and Stream Continuity Project x x U.S. Forest Service Fish Xing x x National Consortium for Remote Sensing in Transportation x Streamlining (under Planning--Local and Regional) Construction Cyber Tracker x x GPS--PDA Handheld Devices w/Data (Case Studies) x x GIS Hydro--Hydrologic Models (under Ecosystems) x Hydro-acoustic Monitoring (under Ecosystems) x Report--Environmental Impact of Construction and Repair x (under Ecosystems) Dave Rosgen's fluvial geomorphology (under Ecosystems) x Environmental Stewardship, Practices, Policies, and Proce- dures for Road Construction and Maintenance (under x Species) Maintenance and Operations Trail Cameras x Cyber Tracker x x GPS--PDA Handheld Devices w/Data (under Case x x Studies)

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10 Ecosystems, Landscapes, and Type of Technology/Methods/Cooperation Species/ Taxa Processes Google Earth (under GIS) for Changes in Vegetation, x x Hydrology, and Boundaries over Time Goddard Space Flight Center's Global Change Master x Directory VERTRAD to Detect Birds (under Species) x Anabat for Bat Surveys (under Species) x DNA Analyses for Wildlife Crossings (under Species) x Citizen Scientists (under Species) x Studies on Mapping Invasive Species in Roadway (under x Species) Guidelines for Vegetation Management (under Species) x x Study on Alternatives to Herbicides (under Species) x x Aerial Photo Analyses Blumenthal (under Species) x Study on Monitoring for Air Quality Standards (under Eco- x systems and Landscapes) Report on Protocols for Stream Restoration (under Ecosys- x tems and Landscapes) Wisconsin Tracking Environmental Mitigation Projects x (under Ecosystems and Landscapes) Washington's Gray Notebook for Performance Measures x (under Ecosystems and Landscapes and Case Study 7) Note: See References for literature and website review. Case Studies Eight case studies were selected to showcase some of the varied means of obtaining, stan- dardizing, sharing, and evaluating ecological survey data. Case studies represent different regions of the United States, different agencies and organizations involved in environmental data collection and management, and varied needs along the transportation planning, devel- opment, and operations process. These case studies are presented in chapter three. Conclusions In chapter four, the synthesis is summarized. Respondents to this synthesis' survey gave thoughtful responses as to how state DOTs and natural resource agencies are coping with the challenges of protecting natural resources. The rich diversity of responses from more than 100 survey participants provided a wide spectrum of biological and ecological survey needs and new approaches to those needs. The major themes of this synthesis, as developed from those responses and concurrent literature and new initiatives searches, are as follows: 1. Transportation planners and their colleagues are moving beyond the traditional framework in the consideration of ecological resources. The 2005 Transportation Act (SAFTEA-LU) encourages and expects this. Long-range transportation planning will consider ecological resources to a greater degree than past actions. 2. The innovations that assist with the developing broad-scale approach to transportation planning involve new ways of thinking; a paradigm is developing that encompasses

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11 broad biological and landscape scales of viewing the natural world and longer time frames to detect potential impacts and to create solutions. 3. These large spatial scale and long-term plans and potential solutions require increas- ingly higher resolution data. These data increasingly need to be provided in similar formats and need to be easily accessible. In summary, the future holds many promising new ways of gathering data, bringing them into common GIS formats, and improving working relations among agencies. The expanded scope of how far away from the roadway and how early in the planning pro- cess environmental concerns are considered is evidence of a new paradigm change for transportation agencies. This change began happening in the past decade as state and fed- eral transportation departments became more responsible for the world outside of the road right-of-way. New ways of doing business that take into account resources beyond the road, such as Context Sensitive Solutions, and the provisions of SAFETEA-LU Sections 6001 and 6002 are becoming more standard. The dozens of responses to this synthesis' survey are reflective of how those within and outside DOTs expect these organizations to oper- ate. A more holistic and greater landscape scale of looking at the environment outside the roadway and over longer time scales than traditionally have been considered will be more common in transportation planning and projects across the United States. This expanded vision of responsibility will necessitate greater interaction among DOTs and state fish and wildlife agencies and an increased need for these agencies to be more proactive about iden- tifying areas that state, regional, and local organizations have targeted for development as well as those areas to avoid, minimize, or mitigate because they are conservation areas. The current initiatives such as the Eco-Logical approach to long-term planning, and the Western Governors' Association Wildlife Corridors Initiative are examples of how states and regions of the country and agencies are coming together to develop an interagency approach to transportation planning, development, and maintenance. These new ways of doing business will be supported by more standardized GIS data that will be synchronized among data layers and across agencies. Technological advances in survey methods will become better developed and disseminated. A promising sign of how ecological survey data will be used proactively to help avoid, minimize, or mitigate environmental impacts is the wealth of survey responses received. The DOT and fish and wildlife agency profes- sionals who replied to the survey are doing an admirable job at protecting the natural world and finding ways to work together. The general consensus is that it is important for these professionals to understand what the ecological resources are before they are gone. Judging from the wealth of knowledge and commitment from the survey respondents concerning the natural world, the United States is well on its way to defining how it will protect and restore its ecological legacies.