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NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-5 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs CATHERINE NELSON, Oregon DOT NANDA SRINIVASAN, Senior Program Officer EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS KATHLEEN S. AMES, Illinois DOT NCHRP SYNTHESIS STAFF STUART D. ANDERSON, Texas A&M University STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special CYNTHIA J. BURBANK, PB Americas, Inc. Programs LISA FREESE, Scoot County (MN) Public Works Division JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies MALCOLM T. KERLEY, Virginia DOT GAIL STABA, Senior Program Officer RICHARD D. LAND, California DOT DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer JAMES W. MARCH, Federal Highway Administration DON TIPPMAN, Editor MARK A. MAREK, Texas DOT CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant JOHN M. MASON, JR., Auburn University ANANTH PRASAD, HNTB Corporation TOPIC PANEL ROBERT L. SACK, New York State DOT ROB AMENT, Montana State University FRANCINE SHAW-WHITSON, Federal Highway DONNA BUSCEMI, Maryland State Highway Administration Administration CHRISTINE GERENCHER, Transportation Research Board LARRY VELASQUEZ, New Mexico DOT HAROLD G. HUNT, California Department of Transportation MARK S. KROSS, Jefferson City, MO DEBRA NELSON, New York State Department of Transportation FHWA LIAISON RON REGAN, Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies WILLIAM ZACCAGNINO VICKI SHARPE, Florida Department of Transportation BRUCE STEIN, National Wildlife Federation PAUL WAGNER, Washington State Department of TRB LIAISON Transportation STEPHEN F. MAHER STEVE EARSOM, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) Cover Figure: Family of three deer on overpass (credit: Patricia Cramer).