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Potential Measures for Improving the Identification of Root Causes for Hazardous Materials Crashes 107 Verify Carrier Names An additional quality assurance check could be performed to verify that the name being entered corresponds to the name provided on the annual PHMSA registration form. This may be already being done but was not mentioned at the time of interviews with officials. Include the Number of Power Units and Drivers For HMIRS, the number of power units and drivers could be included as data elements. All carriers reporting to HMIRS should be in the DOT Census file, so the number of power units and drivers could be extracted from there. This information provides an indication of carrier size that may reflect on the carrier's ability to complete the 5800.1 report. Ensure Package Failure Entries Are Complete PKGFAIL entries should be filled out for all reports submitted to PHMSA. If incomplete, the report would be returned to the carrier for completion of the information and submitted either by phone or e-mail. Continue to Emphasize the Importance of New Reporting Requirements for Damage to Lading and Lading Protection Systems The new requirement that carriers must file a 5800.1 form following an accident if there was damage to lading and lading protection systems on a cargo tank of 1,000 gallons or greater, even if there is no loss of hazardous material, could be emphasized. This is the new requirement to report Class C accidents. Such a notice might be given to carriers when they are informed that their annual hazmat registration application has been reviewed and approved. (This measure would be superseded if all non-spill hazmat accidents were reported in HMIRS.) 5.4.3 Potential Measures for TIFA Potential Measures for Additional Fields Although the TIFA survey adds valuable detail to the FARS data, additional data fields could add important detail about hazmat packaging and also enhance the information available on crash causation. Some elements could be added with little modification of the program. Others would take additional resources, but are nevertheless possible. Right of way could identify which vehicle, if any, within a crash had the right of way prior to the collision. This could be coded readily from the PAR in most cases. Some state crash reports already include right of way. Right of way would be useful in identifying the vehicle that pri- marily contributed to the crash. Critical event is a field that identifies and describes the event that precipitated the crash. This field is included in both the GES and CDS files. Coding manuals are available and could be used to ensure that coding is consistent with NCSA standards. The managers of the TIFA survey might also consider adding a critical reason field. Critical reason captures the "reason" for the critical event, classified broadly as driver, vehicle, or envi- ronment, with detailed levels under each. This variable is useful for identifying the immedi- ate failure that led to the crash and would shed light on crash causation. The field was used in the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) and in the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). Therefore, coding procedures are available. The suggestion to add critical reason to TIFA is tentative, however, as it is not clear whether the TIFA protocol can uncover this information. The TIFA program could also add additional information about hazmat cargo, in particular MC number of the cargo tank. This information has been collected in the past as part of a special data collection, so the feasibility of collecting this information has been demonstrated. Quantity of hazmat transported. Cargo weight could be added back to the survey. The program should consider capturing the quantity in terms of liquid measure, where appropriate.