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CHAPTER 2 Literature Review 2.1 Introduction Concern for transportation accident data collection and the performance of effective root cause analysis is not new. Over the last several decades, policy analysts and researchers have attempted to use crash data to understand what causes accidents and how best to prevent future occurrences. As a result, a body of literature exists with the potential to provide beneficial information to this hazmat root cause analysis study. The study team conducted extensive online searches for relevant literature, focusing on studies of transportation accidents and, more particularly, on the quality of information utilized and the types of analyses that have been performed. As a result, a variety of sources were identified and subsequently reviewed. The remainder of this chapter describes the results of that process. 2.2 Synopses of Relevant Studies The discussion below contains synopses of relevant literature that was obtained and reviewed. In each case, background is provided on the study objectives, followed by a description of find- ings, conclusions, and recommendations. The synopses appear in no particular order. Section 2.3 contains a summary discussion of key lessons learned from the literature review and how this information relates to the objectives of the hazmat root cause analysis study. 2.2.1 Rail Equipment--Train Accident Data Rail Equipment--Train Accident Data (Bureau of Transportation Statistics) is a document that describes reporting requirements for rail equipment, train accidents, and issues associated with data collection. Railroads are required by regulation (49 CFR 225) to report monthly to FRA all such accidents that meet a certain dollar threshold. This damage amount does not include loss of lading, cleanup costs, societal costs, loss of main line, personal injury, or death. Data must be updated when the costs associated with the accident are 10% higher than initially reported. The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) acknowledges that non-sampling errors exist in this reporting system due to 1. Non-entry error, 2. Duplicate entry error (when more than one railroad is involved), 3. Missing data error, 4. Response/measurement error (e.g., accuracy of repair records), 5. Coding/recording error, and 6. Non-coverage error (railroad systems that are excluded from reporting requirements). 14