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Summary of Interviews with Carriers, Shippers, and Database Managers 25 One extremely large motor carrier looks at a driver's log book (to try to identify fatigue fac- tors) and checks the driver's performance history as part of their internal investigation. Some carriers examine a vehicle operator's health history for indications of such conditions as sleep apnea, diabetes, or alcoholism. 4. Examine roadway/runway geometry for accident causes. Road conditions including weather, obstructions, and traffic flow should be part of the investigation. The infrastructure configuration such as lane width, curves, and slopes can also provide indications of crash causation. 5. Take pictures of the accident scene. Carriers recommend photographing the crash scene, including images of the roadway, vehi- cle positioning, crash damage, spill location, and any environmental damage. These pictures can be used to assist in assessing crash causation. 3.2.1 Carrier Satisfaction with HMIRS The great majority of the carriers were satisfied with the process of filling out the PHMSA's HMIRS, although two of these companies actually used a separate spill center to fill out the form. Most companies think that PHMSA's criteria for filing the hazmat report is clear. One suggestion called for the form to be updated in order to increase clarity. Nevertheless, seven of the carriers currently provide training for completing the 5800.1 report. The great majority of these carriers believe that PHMSA-provided training would be useful for their staff com- pleting the 5800.1 report. For those that would take advantage of such training, if offered, sug- gestions included online training/web conference, by CD-ROM, seminars/classroom setting, and training similar to that given to NTSB inspectors. One carrier believes that PHMSA should consider providing training in identifying root causes of accidents. In this regard, some of the techniques used by the NTSB investigators would be valuable for the carriers as they seek answers to the causes of their own crashes. Most of the companies do not feel that additional data should be added to HMIRS. One excep- tionally large company pointed out that for less-than-truckload cargo, there is often more than one type of hazmat being transported. Consequently, they suggested that there should be provi- sions in the form for listing more than one type of hazmat. Furthermore, the responses indicated that sometimes there are undeclared hazmat shipments found on vehicles and there should be a provision in the 5800.1 report for describing these as hazmat. (Note: provisions for handling both of these situations were added after 2004, and several other carriers take advantage of these pro- visions.) If an undeclared shipment is detected, there is an "Undeclared HM Shipment" box to check when filling out the form. If there are multiple, less-than-truckload shipments, many car- riers check the "Additional Pages" box and complete the form for each of the partial shipments. The responses to include provisions that already exist indicate that there is need for additional training or clarification in the instructions for filling out the form. A medium-sized company said they wanted more detail in Section 6 of the 5800.1 form, including whether other parties and other environmental factors (weather, road conditions, obstructions, fatigue, maintenance history, hazmat training, hazmat experience, age of equip- ment, other human factors) were involved. Those carriers that recommended changes to HMIRS also suggested that it be reworded in terms of carrier industry terminology. Most carriers think that PHMSA has an obligation to contact carriers who do not complete their 5800.1 report properly. They believe that PHMSA should contact the carriers by telephone, letter, or e-mail. Carriers would also like to see PHMSA play a more active role in communicat- ing with the companies involved in the accident in order to get more complete and accurate infor- mation. They believe that improved data in the database will enable them to more effectively use