Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 102
102 Aircraft Noise: A Toolkit for Managing Community Expectations Table 6-2. Relative effect. Decibel Level Duration - Seconds Energy Units Day Energy Units Night 1 1 1 10 10 10 100 50 50 500 10 1 10 100 10 100 1000 50 500 5000 20 1 100 1000 10 1000 10000 50 5000 50000 30 1 1000 10000 10 10000 100000 50 50000 500000 40 1 10000 100000 10 100000 1000000 50 500000 5000000 50 1 100000 1 x 106 10 1000000 1 x 107 50 5000000 5 x 107 60 1 1 x 106 1 x 107 10 1 x 107 1 x 108 50 5 x 107 5 x 108 70 1 1 x 107 1 x 108 10 1 x 108 1 x 109 50 5 x 108 5 x 109 80 1 1 x 108 1 x 109 10 1 x 109 1 x 1010 50 5 x 109 5 x 1010 90 1 1 x 109 1 x 1010 10 1 x 1010 1 x 1011 50 5 x 1010 5 x 1011 100 1 1 x 1010 1 x 1011 10 1 x 1011 1 x 1012 50 5 x 1011 5 x 1012 110 1 1 x 1011 1 x 1012 The standards used by the Office of Planning and Environment are used by all divisions of the FAA, with the exception of the additional criteria described by the Air Traffic Organization use earlier. NO DIVISION OF THE FAA HAS ADOPTED SPECIFIC THRESHOLD CRITERIA TO DESCRIBE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR ANY SINGLE EVENT METRIC, WHETHER BY NOISE LEVEL, DURATION OR NUMBER OF OPERATIONS. Precedence of Federal and State/Local Standards and When Applicable The federal government and its aviation regulatory agency, the FAA, holds precedent over local or state regulation of aircraft noise conditions, or numbers or time of operations when the aircraft is in the air, on the runway, or actively taxiing to and from a terminal area (including general aviation, cargo, or maintenance parking aprons) from a runway or taxiway. Several law- suits have established the precedence of federal regulation over local control the most notable of these was the case of City of Burbank vs. Lockheed Air Terminal, in 1973. In that case, the United States Supreme Court found that local communities may not use their police powers to control noise at airports that are owned by others. (145)
OCR for page 103
Noise Management and Public Response 103 Table 6-3. Land use compatibility guidelines 14 CFR PART 150 (Table 1, Appendix A). YEARLY DAY-NIGHT AVERAGE SOUND LEVEL (DNL) IN DECIBELS BELOW OVER LAND USE 65 65-70 70-75 75-80 80-85 85 RESIDENTIAL Residential, other than mobile homes Y N1 N1 N N N and transient lodgings Mobile home parks Y N N N N N Transient lodgings Y N1 N1 N1 N N PUBLIC USE Schools, hospitals, nursing homes Y 25 30 N N N Churches, auditoriums, and concert halls Y 25 30 N N N Governmental services Y Y 25 30 N N Transportation Y Y Y2 Y3 Y4 N4 Parking Y Y Y2 Y3 Y4 N COMMERCIAL USE Offices, business and professional Y Y 25 30 N N Wholesale and retail -- building materials, hardware, and farm equipment Y Y Y2 Y3 YS N Retail trade, general Y Y 25 30 N N Utilities Y Y Y2 Y3 Y4 N Communication Y Y 25 30 N N MANUFACTURING AND PRODUCTION Manufacturing, general Y Y Y2 Y3 Y4 N Photographic and optical Y Y 25 30 N N Agriculture (except livestock) and forestry Y Y6 Y7 Y8 Y8 Y8 Livestock farming and breeding Y Y6 Y7 N N N Mining and fishing, resource production Y Y Y Y Y Y and extraction RECREATIONAL Outdoor sports arenas and spectator sports Y Y Y5 N5 N N Outdoor music shells, amphitheaters Y N N N N N Nature exhibits and zoos Y Y N N N N Amusements, parks, resorts, and camps Y Y Y N N N Golf courses, riding stables, and water recreation Y Y 25 30 N N The designations contained in this table do not constitute a federal determination that any use of land covered by the program is acceptable under federal, state, or local law. The responsibility for determining the acceptable and permissible land uses and the relationship between specific properties and specific noise contours rests with the local authorities. FAA determinations under Part 150 are not intended to substitute federally determined land uses for those determined to be appropriate by local authorities in response to locally determined needs and values in achieving noise compatible land uses. Key To Table 1, Appendix A, 14 CFR Part 150 Y (Yes) Land use and related structures compatible without restrictions. N (No) Land use and related structures are not compatible and should be prohibited. NLR Noise Level Reduction (outdoor to indoor) to be achieved through incorporation of noise attenuation into the design and construction of the structure. 25, 30, 35 Land use and related structures generally compatible; measures to achieve a NLR of 25, 30, or 35 dB must be incorporated into design and construction of structure. Notes for Table 1, Appendix A, 14 CFR Part 150 1. Where the community determines that residential or school uses must be allowed, measures to achieve outdoor-to- indoor Noise Level Reduction (NLR) of at least 25 dB and 30 dB should be incorporated into building codes and be considered in individual approvals. Normal residential construction can be expected to provide a NLR of 20 dB, thus, the reduction requirements are often stated as five, ten, or 15 dB over standard construction and normally assume mechanical ventilation and closed windows year round. However, the use of NLR criteria will not eliminate outdoor noise problems. 2. Measures to achieve NLR of 25 dB must be incorporated into the design and construction of portions of these buildings where the public is received, office areas, noise-sensitive areas, or where the normal noise level is low. 3. Measures to achieve NLR of 30 dB must be incorporated into the design and construction of portions of these buildings where the public is received, office areas, noise-sensitive areas, or where the normal noise level is low. 4. Measures to achieve NLR of 35 dB must be incorporated into the design and construction of portions of these buildings where the public is received, office areas, noise-sensitive areas, or where the normal noise level is low. 5. Land use compatible provided special sound reinforcement systems are installed. 6. Residential buildings require a NLR of 25 dB. 7. Residential buildings require a NLR of 30 dB. 8. Residential buildings not permitted. Source: FAR Part 150 Airport Noise Compatibility Planning, Appendix A, Table 1.