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Noise Abatement (Airside) Techniques 125 dures as part of its noise abatement tools available on-line at the address provided in the pre- ceding section. Limitations: If published as a standard procedure, the measure requires design by FAA Flight Standards and Air Traffic Organizations, with input from airlines/operators and must be devel- oped to the standards of the least capable aircraft in the poorest operating conditions to be gen- erally applied. Implemented by: Airlines/operators with guidance from the FAA Air Traffic and Flight Standards. Airports may seek their approval if believed to be a desirable noise abatement action. Public reaction: For those residing under the areas of lesser thrust or higher overflight, the reaction will be positive. Otherwise, the action is essentially transparent to area residents. Ground Operations Techniques Limit the Use of Reverse Thrust on Arrival Purpose: Jet aircraft utilize thrust reversers to help slow down just after touchdown, reduc- ing wear on the brakes and enabling shorter landing distances. The output from the aircraft engines are directed forward instead of behind the aircraft, increasing noise levels in the direc- tion of the landing. Some airports seek voluntary restriction of the use of thrust reversers and ask operators to utilize the entire runway for arrival to minimize noise impacts, particularly on areas parallel to the runway. Limitations: This is typically a voluntary program that airport operators rely on pilots to uti- lize when conditions are favorable. The measure is rarely used in poor weather or poor runway surface conditions, nor can it be used on relatively short runways when the aircraft requires a long landing distance. Implemented by: Airlines/operators, at the request of the airport with concurrence by the FAA's Air Traffic Control management. Public reaction: In general, reverse thrust limitations are supported by those persons who live lateral to the runway and are most exposed to the increased noise levels during its use. Those who live near the far end of the runway are exposed to more taxi noise as the aircraft uses the full length of the runway to land. In a harmoniously distributed population, the use of reverse thrust is inconsequential to total noise abatement, but as with almost every noise abatement measure, the distribution of the incompatible uses around the airport drives the ability of the measure to be effective for noise reduction. Restrict Ground Run-up Activity Purpose: The airport could restrict the airlines and FBO's to conducting ground run-up activi- ties during specified time periods and/or to a certain location on the airfield. This measure may be included in the lease agreements, and published in NOTAMs or the airport's rules and regulations. The focus of these restrictions has historically been on aircraft undergoing engine maintenance. Limitations: On occasion, an engine that has undergone an overnight repair must be tested prior to being flown. This may result in a late night or early morning engine test run-up before an early morning flight. Restrictions on ground run-up activity frequently exempt these activi- ties or require permission from Airport Operations management prior to occurring. Implemented by: This is one of the few actions an airport may take to limit aircraft noise with- out prior approval or cooperation by the FAA.