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Land Use Management Techniques for Noise Abatement 141 opment and specified timeframe for rebuilding if the structure is destroyed from natural causes. Such restrictions may also limit the number of noise-sensitive uses that may be developed within areas of elevated noise through applying a unit per acre factor or a percentage of open use set aside in larger property platting. These measures are usually a provision of a Noise Overlay Zone, but may be applied independently by local government through the platting or subdivision approval process. Limitations: The measure places a restriction on the unrestrained development of property. Although the number of potentially impacted persons is reduced, impacts may still occur within the areas of significant noise exposure. Implemented by: Local jurisdictions. Public reaction: Typically the restriction of development densities is transparent to the ulti- mate resident and land is used for estate lot or agricultural purposes. However, the original devel- oper may be impacted by the limitation the measure places on his ability to fully develop the property. Plat Modifications to Move Open Space into Noisiest Areas Purpose: When development of noncompatible uses is proposed within the areas exposed to significant aircraft noise levels (generally greater than 65 DNL) the plat design may be modified or managed to assure that the areas exposed to the highest noise levels are reserved for open space or buffer zones and the areas exposed to the lower noise levels are used for the most incompat- ible development. Limitations: Such modifications to plats typically require the support or participation of local developers. The acceptance of such a design strategy may be in the hands of those whose poten- tial market and profitably may be adversely affected by such design standards. Implemented by: Local jurisdictions. Public reaction: It is likely that such plat modifications would be transparent to the general home-buying public. Building Code Modifications Purpose: Building codes may be modified to incorporate structural characteristics into a building that will provide additional sound insulation to mitigate the interior noise levels imposed by aircraft activity. In addition to the requirements established for new construction, buildings that are substantially modified or upgraded may be required to be brought "up to code" through the local permitting process. Limitations: Generally, building codes are established at the state level and, depending upon the language contained in the state code, the use of the state building code is either mandated or permissive. "Mandatory" codes are applicable to all construction whether or not they are locally enforced. "Permissive" codes are only applicable if a local government chooses to adopt and enforce the code. Implemented by: Local jurisdictions. Public reaction: Building codes are often unknown to the general public and typically pro- posed changes are challenged by the home building industry. In general, the public attitude toward building code changes/amendments and enforcement is indifference unless there would be a direct impact on their cost.