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Introduction and Guidebook Summary 3 Airports of different sizes can then explore, in Chapter 4, the strategies and techniques that are most appropriate to their size of airport. Chapter 5 reviews applicable literature and provides case studies of several airports and an university, each of which has encountered difficulties in communications with surrounding neighborhoods and has sought to change their approach to that interaction. Chapter 6 provides background material to the airport manager not thor- oughly versed in the complexities of noise issues to better enable him to respond to public ques- tioning. Chapters 7 through 9 describe approaches to the abatement mitigation and description of noise in terms useful to lay communications. The printed document concludes with a list of the reference material cited throughout the chapters. The accompanying Toolkit includes many examples of material that has been successfully used to communicate information about noise, as well as numerous guidance documents about noise and communications that have seldom been bought together in the same resource. Appendix A, included in the Toolkit, is an anno- tated bibliography of the many documents, websites, and regulatory guidance used in the devel- opment of this report. The Relationship Between Environmental Planning for Airports and General Community Response Factors Airports generate environmental impacts in a variety of different categories required to be reviewed by every environmental assess conducted under the guidelines set forth by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (2). Among these are water run-off issues raised by aircraft de-icing, air quality occasioned by greenhouse gas generation, energy concerns associated with the amount of fuel burn, and recycling/sustainability issues arising from large quantities of waste off-loaded from aircraft after each flight and from goods consumed in the terminal area. However, the environmental effect most commonly associated with air- ports during the last 60 years has been the noise emissions generated by the aircraft using the facility. For more than 40 years, the public has complained about how aircraft noise has impacted their lives. Through protest, complaint, litigation and political action, they have demanded that actions be taken to reduce the noise levels over their homes and places of work. The U.S. Congress instituted a program of systematic noise level reduction by mandating that new aircraft designs be able to meet maximum noise level limits to be certified for flight. This process was formally implemented by the FAA through the 14 CFR Part 36 (3) noise level requirements for three different types of aircraft, dependent on their size and date of design certification. Subsequently, 14 CFR Part 91 (4) operating requirements for aircraft were modified to require that all large jets designed before 1976 were to be phased out of the oper- ating fleet during the mid-1980s if they exceed the least restrictive set of noise level standards. Subsequently, as a result of congressional approval of the Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990 (5), large aircraft were required to conform to the most restrictive standard levels imposed by Part 36, resulting in the fleet now flown at domestic airports. European and some Asian airports are evaluating the imposition of even stricter noise level limits to further reduce noise at the source. It is important to understand that the public does not complain only about the total amount of noise to which it is exposed. It also is concerned about the number of flights that pass over, their individual noise levels, the time of day that they pass over, and their height or proximity to the viewer on the ground. The DNL metric was adopted by the FAA in 1979 as a result of the Avi- ation Safety and Noise Abatement Act (6) for environmental documentation. It was developed