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38 Aircraft Noise: A Toolkit for Managing Community Expectations The handbook is divided into five sections. The first section is an introduction, which describes the benefits of community participa- tion in project development and includes a discussion of an approach to involving the pub- lic in projects on issues ranging from reaching out to avoiding trouble. The second and third sections provide practical guidance for enhancing the public's trust and for managing conflict that might arise during project development. Discussion ranges from dealing with perceptions, responding to emotions, troubleshooting, resolving dis- putes, and everyday conflicts. The fourth section details the process of developing and carrying out a public involvement program and describes the role of a Public Involvement Coordinator. The final section of this handbook is a toolbox of ideas and techniques. See the Communi- cations Checklist section of this toolkit for Chapter 5 contents. Virginia DOT's Public Involvement: Your Guide to Participating in the Transportation Planning and Programming Process (19) 4-3 Includes public involvement and communications goals, as well as public involvement oppor- tunities. It also illustrates how the phases of a project fit together, from planning to operations and maintenance, and discusses citizen involvement at each level. It presents the public with many opportunities to get involved in various projects, and offers numerous contacts for questions or for more information. FAA. Community Involvement Manual (20) 4-4 Although somewhat dated (1990), this manual retains many helpful guidelines for profession- als and others dealing with public involvement efforts on airport development projects and the associated concerns of airport communities. Since planning and community involvement situations will vary with different airports, communities, issues, and points in the planning process, the manual outlines a process for identifying community involvement needs, evalu- ating techniques to meet these needs and designing a workable program. Following the intro- ductory chapter, the manual is comprised of six guidance chapters. Chapter 2 outlines the legal requirements and describes the potential benefits of an effective program. Chapter 3 outlines principles and provides helpful hints. Chapter 4 reviews critical aspect of community involvement, specifically the audience. Chapter 5 describes the desired results. Chapter 6 outlines the key features of specific techniques. Chapter 7 outlines a process for developing a program. Communications Checklists Description. A communications checklist is a means of organizing methods to convey a project's message, appropriate media relations, target audiences, communications tools, and evaluation methods. It allows appropriate persons to plan ahead for the types of media and tools that will be necessary to effectively promote the project's message, and start thinking about how to use the information gathered. Additionally, communications checklists help identify which communication methods best fit the project needs, and help decide with whom the information needs to be shared. Example Best Practices. The following meeting communications checklists were chosen as best practice examples: The International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) Toolbox IAP2 is an association of members who seek to promote and improve the practice of public participation in relation to individuals, governments, institutions, and other entities that affect the public interest in nations throughout the world and serve the learning needs of members

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Community Engagement Strategies and Techniques 39 through events, publications, and communication technology. IAP2 provides training for beginner through advanced practitioners with a broad-based learning experience covering all of the foundations of public participation. IAP2 published a Spectrum of Public Participation ( 2007 IAP2) (21) outlining the steps to increasing the level of public impact in relation to public participation goals, promises made to the community, and example techniques. 4-5 IAP2 published a Public Participation Toolbox ( 2007 IAP2) (22) with examples of different techniques that can be used to: 4-6 Share information; Compile and provide feedback; and Bring people together. In addition to a description of each technique, IAP2 has provided: "Think it Through" pointers and tips when using each of the techniques; "What Can Go Right"; and "What Can Go Wrong" helpful hints. Hear Every Voice: A Guide to Public Involvement at MnDOT Minnesota (23) Minnesota DOT's (MnDOT) Hear Every Voice: A Guide to Public Involvement at MnDOT was prepared in 1999 to provide statewide guidance for planners and project managers on design- ing and implementing public involvement programs to achieve MnDOT's strategic vision of putting their customers first and balancing their interests to achieve the greatest public good. The guide includes matrixes designed to assist one charged with developing a public involve- ment program to understand the public involvement process 4-7 , create the program 4-8 , public involvement guidelines, and a toolkit of resources required. 4-9 Unique to the plan, each tool and technique is ranked by its usefulness in long-range plan- ning, corridor studies, project development, programming, or construction-related activities. Pennsylvania DOT's Public Involvement Handbook (18) Pennsylvania DOT's Public Involvement Handbook describes the principles, procedures, and techniques for enhancing citizen participation in the development of improvement projects. The handbook is divided into five sections. See the Manual section of this Toolkit for more information on this document. The final section of this handbook is a toolbox of ideas and techniques that can be applied to a variety of situations in which an agency interacts with the public throughout the devel- opment of improvement projects. The toolbox also includes a matrix that compares tools and techniques according to cost, time, and skills, in addition to a matrix that recommends tools and techniques based on the phase of the program or project. The handbook includes checklists for preparing: Brochures 4-10 Conflict Resolution 4-11 Direct Mail 4-12 Field Offices 4-13 Flyers and Posters 4-14 Information Lines 4-15 Media Relations 4-16