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Case Studies in Airport/Stakeholder Communication 57 Each review provides an introduction to the paper, followed by a summary of its findings and conclusions relevant to the airport industry. The studies are: Airport Industry Best Practices in the Airport Industry: An Assessment of Airport Commu- nity Involvement Efforts (12 ) Finding Relevant to Aircraft Noise Communications: Airports as a whole are busy, confined by regulations and focused on airport operations. They view dealing with the community affected by noise as a necessary nuisance, but not important enough to require development of an ongo- ing relationship. This literature review is located in front of the case studies as a summary of the overall state of community involvement in airports. Surface Transportation Industry - Best Practices in the Transportation Industry: Trans- portation Research Board White Paper (13) Finding Relevant to Aircraft Noise Communications: The emerging model in the surface trans- portation industry "assumes that public input into the assessment of transportation needs and solutions is a key factor in most transportation decision making." Environmental Industry - Best Practices in the Environmental Industry: Stakeholder Involvement & Public Participation at the U.S. EPA (15) Finding Relevant to Aircraft Noise Communications: The environmental management and regulation industry, as exemplified by the EPA, faces similarly adversarial issues with the community as airports. EPA has wide responsibilities for air quality, water quality and waste disposal regulations and projects, but does not have jurisdiction over aircraft or air- port noise. This evaluation concluded that best practices require giving citizens, industry, environmental groups, and academics much greater roles in environmental decision mak- ing. It states a belief in building trust with the community to ensure an effective working relationship. Airport Case Studies Over the last two decades, each of the case study airports has faced controversy over proposed or planned changes that would potentially create adverse noise impacts on noise-sensitive land uses around the airport. In each case, these issues are similar to those faced by all airports as they develop to better serve their communities. Staff at, and community representatives near, each airport were asked to reflect upon the communications program put in place by each airport to provide information to, receive comments from, and engage in discussion with each other about aircraft noise issues present at the facility. The five airports selected for individualized case study represented a broad spectrum of avia- tion missions as managed by the probable airport manager users of this Guidebook and Toolkit. Each airport case study begins with a brief introduction and history of the airport and its noise program as a framework for the interview results. The descriptive material is drawn from the air- port's written and website materials or from the author's knowledge of the industry. The next sections discuss who was interviewed and what the key issues were and continue to appear to be, followed by conclusions. For those who want more detail on the noise abatement program, the airport's website is indicated. The selected missions and case study airports are: Large/Medium-Hub Airport With Passenger Service - San Francisco International Airport (SFO) (122) Relevance to Aircraft Noise Communications: After several aircraft noise related lawsuits in the 1970s, this large air carrier airport's management has made building a long-term relationship with the surrounding communities a priority. It has been rewarded with relative peace and three decades of meaningful participation by key stakeholders. The air- port has a strong history of "doing something about noise", which is very important to its neighbors.