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90 Aircraft Noise: A Toolkit for Managing Community Expectations that receives federal funding. In exchange for a scheduled phase out of Stage 2 aircraft by the end of 1999, airports were prohibited from implementing new access restrictions on Stage 3 aircraft unless an application is prepared and approved under 14 CFR Part 161, Notice and Approval of Airport Noise and Access Restrictions. 14 CFR Part 161, Notice and Approval of Airport Noise and Access Restrictions (138) The regulation restricts the ability of an airport that is or has received federal funding for airport improvement projects from implementing any restrictions on access to its facility under local police powers. The regulation requires that any airport desiring to implement a restric- tive measure (curfew, aircraft type prohibition, noise cap, etc.) must first complete a rigor- ous application that evaluates the benefits and costs of each such action. The sponsor must consider not only the effects of the action in the local environment, but also on the national transportation system. For Stage 2 aircraft, the required evaluations are less extensive than for restrictions proposed for Stage 3 aircraft, but in practice, the FAA reviewers have set a high bar for approval of restrictions on both aircraft groups. In late 2008, no airport had received approval for any new restriction on Stage 3 aircraft, and only Naples Municipal Airport (Florida) had achieved a restriction on Stage 2 operations, but even then after years of litigation. Federal Aviation Reauthorization Act of 1996 (139) (PL 104-264) This act restructured the Air Traffic Organization (air traffic control), modified the funding program, provided for environmental streamlining to speed project review, and established a research program for aviation initiatives. Vision 100 Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act of 2003 (140) (PL 108-176) This Act con- tinued funding of airport grant programs and addressed airline and airport safety issues, as well as continuing the research component of the planning analyses. During the period since 2003, Congress has passed continuing resolutions to fund the several reauthorizations of Vision 100 to continue program funding without interruption. FAA Orders and Guidance on Environmental Planning In addition to the regulation of aircraft noise assessment set forth under 14 CFR Parts 36, 91, 150, and 161 described in the previous section, the Federal Aviation Administration has estab- lished Environmental Orders and supplemental guidance for the evaluation of aircraft noise within the larger context of the assessment of all environmental consequences of an airport- related development or planning action. These orders are: FAA Order 1050.1E, CHANGE 1 Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures (2006) (141) This Order provides specific guidance and instructions to the preparers of Envi- ronmental Impact Statements, Assessments, Categorical Exclusions, and other findings. It delineates specific detailed requirements for information that must be incorporated into envi- ronmental documents and provides standards of significance to be addressed for each envi- ronmental category. For noise, the standard of significance has been determined to be a change of 1.5 dB of DNL resulting in an annual average DNL of 65 dB or more, when compared to an established baseline condition for the same period of time. 6-3 FAA Order 5050.4B NEPA Implementing Instructions for Airport Actions (2006) (142) This Order provides FAA organizations with Agency policies and procedures to comply with NEPA and CEQ implementing regulations. It is intended primarily as guidance to the pro- cessing of environmental evaluations for the FAA reviewer and planning professional to assure consistent and accurate processing of all environmental evaluations for airport-related projects. 6-4