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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 15 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Aircraft Noise: A Toolkit for Managing Community Expectations

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg James Crites Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond John K. Duval Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Beverly Municipal Airport Virginia, Charlottesville Kitty Freidheim Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Freidheim Consulting Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Oakland International Airport Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Federal Aviation Administration Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Carolyn Motz Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Hagerstown Regional Airport Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., Richard Tucker Pitt Meadows, BC Huntsville International Airport Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO EX OFFICIO MEMBERS C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Sabrina Johnson Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Air Transport Association of America Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport Executives Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Transportation Research Board University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Christopher W. Jenks Administration, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Jeffrey F. Paniati, Acting Deputy Administrator and Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Peter Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2009. *Membership as of June 2009.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 15 Aircraft Noise: A Toolkit for Managing Community Expectations Jon M. Woodward LANDRUM & BROWN Overland Park, KS IN ASSOCIATION WITH Lisa Lassman Briscoe PATTI BANKS ASSOCIATES Kansas City, MO Paul Dunholter BRIDGENET INTERNATIONAL Costa Mesa, CA Subject Areas Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 15 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 02-05 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-11801-9 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2009936630 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2009 Transportation Research Board airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 15 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-05 PANEL Field of Environment Karen Hancock, City of Aurora, Aurora, CO (Chair) Frederick R. Busch, Denver International Airport, Denver, CO John L. Collins, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, Frederick, MD Daniel H. Frazee, San Diego International Airport, San Diego, CA Jon Rodgers, Jon Rodgers Aviation Consulting, Van Nuys, CA Ellen Sample, Maryland Aviation Administration, BWI Airport, MD Robert H. Slattery, Jr., Louisville Regional Airport Authority, Louisville, KY Mehmet Marsan, FAA Liaison Jake Plante, FAA Liaison Kenneth Feith, US Environmental Protection Agency Liaison Jessica Steinhilber, Airports Council InternationalNorth America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was accomplished under ACRP Project Number 02-05 by Landrum & Brown (L&B) at Overland Park, Kansas. L&B was the contractor for this study, with assistance provided by Patti Banks Associates (PBA), Kansas City, Missouri, and BridgeNet International (BNI), Costa Mesa, California. Jon M. Woodward, Executive Vice-President for Environmental Planning at L&B, was the Principal Investigator and primary author of the report. Lisa Lassman Briscoe, AIA, Principal at PBA served as a Lead Investigator and author of public outreach and communications sections of the document. Paul Dunholter, Managing Director of BNI served as a Lead Investigator for visualization and animation tools. Other authors of this report are Stanley K. Eshelman, Senior Consultant at L&B, Lynnis Jameson, AICP, Senior Planner at PBA, Blair S. Sells, Planner at PBA, Cynthia Gibbs, Aviation Planner at BNI, and Paul W. Ziegler, Software Manager at BNI. The authors are particularly indebted to the many airport managers, noise abatement officers and air- port or community stakeholders who took part in the extensive survey and interview process conducted for this study. Their input was essential to the comprehensiveness of the final document. Errors and omissions that may be present are those of the authors alone.

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FOREWORD By Michael R. Salamone Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This guidebook should be of interest to airport managers and other staff from airports of all sizes who are responsible for responding to neighboring communities regarding aircraft noise issues. It provides guidance on how best to improve communications with the public about issues related to aircraft noise exposure. Specifically, the guidebook presents best practices that characterize an effective communications program and provides basic infor- mation about noise and its abatement to assist in responding to public inquiries. It also sug- gests tools useful to initiate a new or upgrade an existing program of communication with public and private stakeholders about noise issues. An accompanying CD-ROM contains a toolkit with examples of material that has been successfully used to communicate informa- tion about noise, as well as numerous guidance documents about noise and communica- tions that have seldom been brought together in the same resource. Generally, current understanding of the factors that influence community responses toward aircraft noise is inadequate. Moreover, an airport's grasp of these factors is impor- tant to its ability to manage local aircraft noise issues within the community. When aircraft noise causes community opposition to airport operations or planned development, airports have often attempted to overcome the project-specific opposition rather than manage com- munity expectations for the long term. Without effective, long-term management of com- munity expectations for aircraft noise, airports face a significant constraint to meeting future airport-capacity needs. It is increasingly important for airport decision makers to understand the aircraft noise issue and to take advantage of successful practices at other airports in managing commu- nity aircraft noise expectations. Airports also need new techniques or assessment methods to communicate more effectively and thereby manage community expectations. Even where the airport eventually succeeds in reducing community opposition to airport development or expanded operation, the process can delay completion of needed facilities because of political action or lawsuits. Apart from the direct costs of legal action, these delays can add significantly to the costs or benefits of specific projects. In extreme cases, despite implementing many known noise mitigation procedures, airports have been forced to aban- don development of much needed new facilities because of unmanaged expectations from aircraft noise. As demand for more air travel forces more metropolitan regions to expand existing air- ports or seek sites for new secondary airports or even to relocate existing airports from con- strained sites, community attitudes toward new and expanded airports will become an even more important element of airport system planning. Although various factors influence community attitudes about airport operations, aircraft noise is the dominant issue at many airports. Research is needed to provide airports with tools to manage these noise issues.

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Under ACRP Project 2-05, Landrum and Brown was asked to (1) develop an informative guidebook about local aircraft noise to inform readers with a direct interest, involvement, or investment in airports; (2) develop a toolkit that airport decision makers can use to man- age expectations related to aircraft noise within the community; (3) investigate alternative metrics to communicate noise issues to the community; and (4) suggest other improve- ments that go beyond current practice to ease aircraft-noise issues. For this research, the term "noise issues" involves the socioeconomic, political, operational, safety, environmen- tal, and legal impacts of aircraft noise on an airport; the complaints about aircraft noise from neighbors; the effects that noise has on neighbors; and the communication between the air- port and its neighbors. To accomplish the project objectives, the research team (1) conducted a thorough review of relevant domestic and international literature, research, existing regulatory requirements, published technical guidance, known mitigation techniques, and other appropriate mate- rial associated with the various aspects of the noise issue; (2) surveyed a representative sam- ple of airports (privately and publicly owned), including general aviation, reliever, large-, medium-, small-, and non-hub, air carrier airports and conducted follow-up interviews with persons of interest identified during the initial survey to identify the elements included in individual airport-noise programs, determine how the program elements are imple- mented, and assess their relative success or failure; (3) evaluated relevant practices, existing guidance, research findings, and other information on the range of noise issues identified; (4) identified techniques that can be used by airports to educate, establish, and reasonably manage expectations in the community and categorized techniques by type of noise issue; and (5) prepared the guidebook and CD-based toolkit.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction and Guidebook Summary 2 Purpose of the Guidebook 2 How to Use the Guidebook 3 The Relationship Between Environmental Planning for Airports and General Community Response Factors 4 Culture Shift Required 6 Best Practices in Achieving Effective Communications: 6 Keys 6 Build Trust Through "Good" Two-Way Communications 6 Put Senior Leadership Out Front 6 Use Graphics to Illustrate the Message 6 Have a Transparent Process 6 Select Staff for Service-Oriented Attitude (People-Skills) 7 Be Ahead with Communication 7 Best Metrics to Communicate the Characteristics of Noise 7 Cumulative versus Single Event Noise 8 Best Practices for Managing Noise Compatibility Issues 10 Chapter 2 Need for Building Relationships 10 Legal/Administrative Requirements for Public Contact 11 Shifting to a Public Service-Oriented Approach 12 Chapter 3 Desired Outcomes of a Community Engagement Program 12 Airport and Non-Airport Communication Goals 12 Potential Communication Objectives 13 Defining and Measuring Success 13 Consequences of Doing Nothing 13 Example Evaluation Questions 14 How Much is Enough? -- One Size Does Not Fit All 14 The Highway Experience with Public Engagement 14 What Does the Public Really Want? 15 Chapter 4 Community Engagement Strategies and Techniques 15 Introduction 16 When to Use This Chapter 16 Community Engagement Strategies 16 Strategies for Successful Community Engagement 17 How to Use the Engagement Strategies 17 Strategies for Successful Community Engagement 27 When and How is it Best to Start? 27 Self-Assessment Tool 28 When to Use the Self-Assessment Tool

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28 How to Use the Self-Assessment Tool 32 Implementation Steps Matrix 33 What is in the Implementation Steps Matrix? 33 How to Use the Implementation Steps Matrix 36 Community Engagement Techniques and Tools 37 Community Involvement Manuals 38 Communications Checklists 40 Checklists for Meeting Preparation and Meeting Announcements 41 Brochures 43 Fact Sheets 44 Flyers or Posters 45 Newsletters 46 Frequently Asked Questions 47 Annual Reports and Noise Program Overviews 49 Multimedia Presentations 51 Websites 52 Interactive Learning Tool 54 Advanced Technology Demonstrations 55 Outreach Vehicle Tools 56 Chapter 5 Case Studies in Airport/Stakeholder Communication 56 Content and Case Overview 56 Airport and Peer Industry Literature Review 57 Airport Case Studies 58 University Case Study 59 Literature Review of Peer Industries 59 Best Practices in the Airport Industry: An Assessment of Airport Community Involvement Efforts 61 Study Conclusions 61 Best Practices in the Transportation Industry: Transportation Research Board White Paper 62 Study Findings 62 What is Good Practice? 63 Challenges to Practitioners: Areas for Development 64 Vision for the Next Decade 64 Conclusions 65 Best Practices in the Environmental Industry: Stakeholder Involvement & Public Participation by the U.S. EPA (15) 65 Study Findings 67 Questions to Consider in Reviewing Outreach Effectiveness 67 Conclusions 67 Case Studies 67 Large/Medium-Hub Airport with Passenger Service--San Francisco International Airport (SFO) 70 Small/Non-Hub Airport with Passenger Service--Long Beach Airport (LGB) 73 Cargo Hub Airport--Louisville International Airport/Standiford Field (SDF) 76 Large General Aviation/Reliever Airport--Van Nuys Airport (VNY) 80 Smaller General Aviation Airport--Ohio State University Airport (OSU)

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82 Education Industry--Crisis in the College/University Relationship with the Community: A Case Study (14) 85 Conclusions 87 Chapter 6 Noise Management and Public Response 88 Legislative Control of Aviation 88 Congressional and Federal Regulatory Actions 90 FAA Orders and Guidance on Environmental Planning 91 State and Local Action 92 Mandatory and Voluntary Noise Abatement Actions 92 Airport Role in Comprehensive Planning 93 Stakeholder Involvement and Jurisdictional Coordination 94 Implementation Responsibilities and Constraints 94 Information to Respond to Typical Public Concerns About Noise 94 Cumulative versus Single Event Noise Levels 95 Thresholds of Significant Noise 100 Difference Between Noise Impact and Noise Effect 100 Difference Between Compatible and Incompatible (Noise-Sensitive) Land Uses 101 Differences within the FAA Divisions Regarding Thresholds of Noise Level Evaluation (60/65 DNL in Airports vs. 45/60/65 DNL in Air Traffic) 102 Precedence of Federal and State/Local Standards and When Applicable 104 Measured versus Computer-Modeled Noise Levels 105 Aircraft Noise-Based Vibration and Rattle 105 Sound Insulation Programs for Noise Abatement 107 Difference between Interior and Exterior Sound Levels and Methods to Abate Each 108 Contour and Impact Area Change Over Time and the Differences Between Federal and Local Response to Change 109 Self Assessment Tools for Noise Management Programs 110 Evaluation Checklist for Airports without Noise Programs 110 Evaluation Checklist for Airports with Established Noise Programs 111 Chapter 7 Noise Metrics and Community Response 112 Cumulative Noise Metrics 113 Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL or Ldn) 113 Community Noise Equivalent Level (CNEL) 114 Equivalent Sound Level (Leq) 114 Single Event Noise Metrics 114 Sound Exposure Level (SEL) 115 Maximum A-Weighted Sound Level (Lmax) 116 Slant Range Distance/Altitude 116 Hybrid Metrics 116 Number of Events Above (NA) 117 Time Above 118 Best Applications 119 Chapter 8 Noise Abatement (Airside) Techniques 119 Noise Complaint Characteristics 122 Flight Management Techniques

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122 Continuous Descent Approach (CDA) 122 Preferential Runway Use Program 123 Flight Track Modifications to Fly Over Compatible Uses 124 Take Off Thrust and Flap Management Procedures 124 Approach Thrust and Flap Management Procedures 125 Ground Operations Techniques 125 Limit the Use of Reverse Thrust on Arrival 125 Restrict Ground Run-up Activity 126 Limit Taxiing Power 126 Facility Development Actions 126 Runway or Taxiway Addition or Relocation 126 Displaced Threshold - Landings 127 Relocated Runway End - Takeoffs 127 High Speed Exit Taxiways 128 Noise Barriers/Berms/Shielding 128 Restrict Apron/Gate Power 128 Enhanced Navigational Aids 129 Airport Access Restrictions 131 Pilot Awareness Programs 131 Best Practices 133 Chapter 9 Land Use Management Techniques for Noise Abatement 134 Land Management Actions an Airport May Implement 134 Purchase of Non-Compatible Land 135 Acquisition of Noise and Overflight Easements 135 Waiver of Claim 136 Development Rights Transactions 136 Purchase Assurance/Sales Assistance 137 Sound Insulation of Noise-Sensitive Noncompatible Structures 137 Land Use Actions Requiring Implementation by Others 137 Comprehensive Community Planning 138 Compatible Land Use Zoning 138 Noise Impact Overlay Zoning 139 Subdivision Code Modifications 139 Dedication of Noise and Overflight Easements 140 Noise Level/Nuisance Disclosure Statement 140 Development Density Restrictions in High Noise Areas 141 Plat Modifications to Move Open Space into Noisiest Areas 141 Building Code Modifications 142 Review of Development Proposals 142 Best Practices in Land Use Management for Noise Compatibility 144 References