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OCR for page 117
Monitoring, Evaluating, and Modifying the Plan 119 The third step in the monitoring process (as reflected in Step 3 of Worksheet 10.01) is to deter- mine who has responsibility for ensuring implementation of the strategic plan's short-term objec- tives and reporting implementation status to the individual determined in Step 1 or 2. Most often, the individual responsible for ensuring implementation of a specific short-term objective will be the head of the department whose staff will carry out the majority of the actions specified in the action plan for that particular objective. For example, if the short-term objective is to "aggressively pursue low-cost and new-entrant airlines to diversify the airport's tenant airlines and provide more alternatives for the public," then most of the actions to implement this objective will be taken by the marketing/air service development department. Therefore, the logical person to assume responsibility for monitoring this short-term objective is the manager of the marketing/air service development department. As in Steps 1 and 2, the frequency, form, and content of the status report should be noted on the worksheet. Individuals responsible for carrying out the specific actions nec- essary to implement a particular short-term objective should provide frequent verbal status updates to the individual responsible for monitoring implementation of the short-term objective. After Worksheet 10.01 has been completed, the planning team should ask the following questions:103 Are the individuals responsible for monitoring the long- and short-term strategic plan objec- tives able to break down the implementation process so that it is manageable and doesn't over- whelm them or others involved? Are they effective project managers? Do these individuals have the skills and resources, the training, and the education to ensure their success as translators of the planning initiatives into the life of the organization? Are the individuals responsible for monitoring the long- and short-term strategic plan objec- tives committed and passionate about the objectives so that they have the ability to generate the enthusiasm necessary to motivate others who may show reluctance toward the change effort? Are there opportunities for short-term recognition, appreciation, and rewards for those indi- viduals who are successful in monitoring and ensuring the implementation of long- and short- term strategic plan objectives? Establish a process for monitoring implementation of a strategic plan by com- pleting Worksheet 10.01, "Monitoring Implementation of the Strategic Plan." 10.2 Reviewing Strategic Plan Implementation and Modifying the Strategic Plan The environment in which airports operate will eventually trigger the need for revisions to the strategic plan.104 Valid reasons for modifying the strategic plan typically include changes to the organization's external environment or changes in the availability of time or resources necessary to implement the plan. Valid changes often relate to the extent of achievement of particular objectives rather than changes to the objectives themselves. The steps in Worksheet 10.02, "Reviewing the Implementation of Strategic Plan Strategies and Objectives and Making Necessary Modifications," should be completed at least twice a year (as 103 These questions are adapted from Rod Napier et al., High Impact Tools and Activities for Strategic Planning: Creative Tech- niques for Facilitating Your Organization's Planning Process (New York: McGraw Hill, 1998): 335. 104 The discussion in the remainder of this paragraph was adapted Carter McNamara, Field Guide to Nonprofit Strategic Plan- ning and Facilitation, 3rd ed. (Minneapolis: Authenticity Consulting LLC, December 2007): 124.

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120 Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry a joint exercise by members of the planning team) as part of a full review of the strategic plan strategies and objectives and their implementation. The results of the online survey indicated that some organizations assess whether or not changed circumstances may necessitate strategic plan revisions even more frequently (34 percent of respondents indicate that they conduct this type of review either quarterly or monthly). To understand how the organization's internal and external environment has changed, the planning team should first re-conduct the SWOT analy- sis using the techniques described in Chapter 6. The planning team should then compare the results of this new SWOT analysis with the results of the prior SWOT analysis and note any changes (Step 1 of Worksheet 10.02). Next, the planning team should describe the implementation status of the organization's strategies. Any impediments to accomplishing the strategies should be noted as well. Finally, any recommended changes to the organization's strategies should be detailed. If the planning team determines that substantial changes are necessary to the organization's strategies, team members should consider the possibility of recommending that a new strategic plan be drafted as the design of the existing plan may be incompatible with the new strategies that will be adopted. In Step 3 of this worksheet, the planning team assesses the implementation status of the plan's long-term objectives. If progress toward achieving a particular long-term objective has been minimal, the planning team should assess whether or not the objective needs to be modified. As part of this assessment, input should be sought from the individual responsible for monitoring implementation of the long-term objective. The planning team should then assess the strengths and weaknesses of the long-term objective and note any modifications that would improve the long-term objective. Finally, the team should recommend a resolution for the long-term objec- tive.105 Options may include the following or a combination of the following: keep the objective, terminate the objective, replace the objective with a new or revised objective, extend the dead- line for completion, or allocate additional resources. If the decision is made to replace the par- ticular long-term objective with a new or revised objective, each of the short-term objectives and performance metrics associated with the long-term objective must also be revised. The final step in completing this worksheet is for the planning team to assess the implemen- tation status of each short-term objective in the strategic plan. The process is similar to the process described above for the plan's long-term objectives, except for additional focus on the performance metric(s) that are paired with the short-term objective. Replacing the current per- formance metric with a new or revised performance metric is an additional option for modify- ing the short-term objective (as well as the options mentioned above). If significant changes are made to the short-term objective, the planning team may choose to revise the action plan asso- ciated with the objective or delegate this responsibility to the individual responsible for moni- toring implementation of the short-term objective. Review implementation of strategic plan and make necessary modifications to the strategic plan by completing Worksheet 10.02, "Reviewing the Implementation of Strategic Plan Strategies and Objectives and Making Necessary Modifications." 105 The planning team may be empowered to make necessary changes to the strategic plan directly, but often is required to make preliminary recommendations for changes that must then be approved by senior management or the policy-making authority.