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Creating a Process Plan and Road Map 25 · No major events (i.e., change of leadership) are expected to affect the process. If major events will take place in the near future, the strategic planning process should not be initiated. · The decision-making processes are aligned with the organization's values. · Unless extraordinary circumstances occur, it is believed that the plan will be implemented once defined. To assess the organization's readiness, complete the "Readiness Criteria Question- naire" (Worksheet 3.02). 3.4 Defining the Scope of the Process The scope of the strategic planning process will vary based on the organization's needs and complexity, but, as indicated in Chapter 2, the strategic planning process generally consists of four phases, including preplanning, analysis/evaluation, implementation/execution, and monitoring. Factors that will influence the scope of the process include, but are not limited to, the following: · The organization's complexity · The reasons for initiating the process · The intent of the process · The relationship between the policy board and senior management · The relationship between senior management and staff · The extent to which the decision-makers in the organization are analytically focused (data- driven) or driven by intuition. In addition, the scope of the process should be defined by determining whether communication at all levels of the organization is sufficiently open and clear to make effective use of the planning process. Finally, the scope of the process should be defined by identifying whether other issues might distract the planning team, department leaders, or senior management. This Guidebook identifies eight major tasks in the strategic planning process, each addressed in a separate chapter in Part 2: · Creating a Process Plan and Road Map (this chapter, Chapter 3) · Evaluating and Understanding the Organization (Chapter 4) · Defining and Articulating the Organization's Mission, Vision, and Values (Chapter 5) · Scanning the Environment and Predicting Developments (Chapter 6) · Identifying Strategic Issues, Strategies, and Long-term Objectives (Chapter 7) · Formulating Short-term Objectives and Creating Action Plans (Chapter 8) · Writing, Communicating, and Executing the Plan (Chapter 9) · Monitoring, Evaluating, and Modifying the Plan (Chapter 10) It should be noted that there is a great deal of interdependence and overlap among the tasks. For instance, the organization's mission and vision are generally revisited after scanning the environ- ment and predicting developments. These tasks also require different levels of participation and communication. The scope of the process should be tailored to each organization, but the strate- gic elements listed in Exhibit 3-1 should be included in the strategic plan for all organizations. 3.4.1 Identifying the Period of Time the Plan Will Cover The time period covered by the strategic plan is usually the period during which the long-term goals set forth in the plan are intended to be implemented. From the focus groups, it was determined
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26 Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry Strategic Elements Best Practices 1 MISSION AND Outline direction over a long-term period VALUES STRATEGIC Detail the generic and grand strategies that will 2 guide the development of objectives INITIATIVES LONG- AND Set out major strategic themes on how to achieve 3 SHORT-TERM the vision OBJECTIVES Provide strategic direction for cascaded planning ACTION PLAN/ Lay out the actionable initiatives, targets, and 4 PERFORMANCE performance measures for each department to track progress toward achieving the organization's goals MEASURES Exhibit 3-1. Strategic planning elements and best practices. that the time span for an airport strategic plan is generally 5 to 20 years, with revisions and updates made to the plan every year. Exhibit 3-2 shows the time span for a strategic plan in com- parison to the financial plans (capital improvement and business plans) and facility plans (master plans) that airport organizations typically prepare. As indicated in Exhibit 3-3, the mission and vision statements are generally developed con- sidering the long-term future (up to 20 years). Grand strategies and long-term objectives are gen- erally defined for a shorter period of time (3 to 5 years). The tasks to be completed to meet the organization's short-term objectives are generally developed considering the short-term future (1 to 2 years). Up to 20 years (with annual update/review) STRATEGIC PROGRAMS 20 years MASTER PLAN 10 years CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PLAN 5 years TACTICAL BUSINESS PLAN AND FINANCIAL PLAN 1-2 years BUSINESS PLAN AND BUDGET Exhibit 3-2. Time spans for strategic and other plans.