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48 Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry 4.3 Identifying Factors Critical to Achieving or Not Achieving Previously Set Goals By identifying the factors critical to achieving (or not achieving) goals previously identified for the organization, the planning team will be able to leverage past successes and avoid future fail- ures as the strategic planning process progresses. Even though a formal strategic plan may not be in place for the organization, it is likely that long-term goals (typically 5 years to attain) or short- term goals (typically 1 to 2 years to attain) were set as part of other business planning efforts. The first step in completing Worksheet 4.03, "Reviewing Recently Set Goals and Their Attain- ment," is for the planning team to select the most important goals set for the organization over the past decade, describe why they are important, and note whether the goals were achieved. The num- ber of goals listed will vary. Ideally, the 10 most important goals should be considered, and there will likely be a mixture of goals that have been achieved and goals that have not been achieved. To complete Steps 2 of Worksheet 4.03, the planning team may benefit from conducting a problem tree analysis and a related objective tree analysis. A problem tree analysis may assist the planning team in assessing the causes (key failure factors) and effects of the failure to achieve a goal. A problem tree analysis is typically conducted using a flip chart. The goal that was not achieved is written in the center of the flip chart and becomes the trunk of the tree. The planning team should then identify the causes and effects of failing to achieve the goal. As indicated in Exhibit 4-1, such an analysis can reflect reality, so that the roots represent the root causes of the failure and the branches represent the consequences of the failure. Effects Airport less competitive in attracting air service Airline cost per enplaned passenger increased Non-aeronautical revenue did not increase Landside commercial Airside concession development under plan revenue under plan Lack of clarity about Land leasing policies Took too long to Lengthy leases led to preferred airport land inhibited third-party redevelop vacant stale mix of uses development concession space concessionaires Causes Exhibit 4-1. Sample cause-and-effect chart--problem tree analysis.