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160 APPENDIX A Bibliography A.1. Accidents and Incidents White, J. C. and S. K. Agrawal. Soft Ground Arresting System for Airports, Final Report. Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration, David, R. E. Location of Commercial Aircraft Accidents/Incidents Relative 1993. CT-93-80. to Runways. Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration, 1990. DOT/FAA/AOV 90-1. Hall, J., M. Ayres, Jr., D. Wong, A. Appleyard, M. Eddowes, H. Shirazi, A.4. FAA Documents R. Speir, D. Pitfield, R. Caves, O. Selezneva, and T. Puzin. ACRP Report 3: Analysis of Aircraft Overruns and Undershoots for Runway Aircraft Arresting Systems on Civil Airports. Washington, D.C.: Federal Safety Areas. Washington, D.C.: TRB, National Research Council, Aviation Administration, 2006. AC 150/5220-9a. 2008. Engineered Materials Arresting Systems (EMAS) for Aircraft Overruns. NTSB. Hard Landing, Gear Collapse Federal Express Flight 647 Boeing Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration, 2005. AC Md-10-10f, N364fe Memphis, Tennessee, December 18, 2003: National 150-5220-22a. Transportation Safety Board, 2003. Financial Feasibility and Equivalency of Runway Safety Area Improvements and Engineered Material Arresting Systems. Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration, 2004. Order 5200.9. A.2. Aircraft Runway Safety Area Program. Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration, 1999. Order 5200.8. Boeing. 737 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning. Renton, WA: Certification and Operations: Land Airports Serving Certain Air Carriers: The Boeing Company, 2005. Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration, 1996. CFR 14 Boeing. Minimizing the Impact of Runway Arresting Systems on Com- Part 139. mercial Airplane Operations., ed. Brad Bachtel: Renton, WA: The Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace: Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Boeing Company. Administration, 1993. CFR 14 Part 77. Bruhn, E. F. Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures. ed. R. J. H. Airport Design: Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration, Bollard, L. E. Hackman, G. Lianis, W. F. McCombs, A. F. Schmitt, C. R. Smith, and J. A. Wolf: S. R. Jacobs & Associates, Inc., 1973. 1989. AC 150/5300-13. Spieck, M. Simulation of Aircraft Landing Impact Under Consideration Introduction to Safety Management Systems (SMS) for Airport Operators. of Aerodynamic Forces on the Flexible Structure. Paper presented at the Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration, 2007. AC 150/ 10th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization 5200-37. Conference, Albany, New York 2004. Runway Safety Area Status Database. Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration, 2007. A.3. Arrestors A.5. Human Injury Cook, R. F. Soft-Ground Aircraft Arresting Systems, Final Report. Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration, 1987. FAA/ DeWeese, R. L. and D. M. Moorcraft. Evaluation of a Head Injury Criteria PM-87-27. Component Test Device. Washington, D.C.: Office of Aerospace Cook, R. F. Evaluation of a Foam Arrestor Bed for Aircraft Safety Over- Medicine, 2004. DOT/FAA/AM-04/18. run Areas. Dayton: University of Dayton Research Institute, 1988. Hendler, E. Linear Acceleration as a Survivable Hazard in Aviation. UDR-TR-88-07. 27(6), December 1956, J. Aviat. Med., pp. 495501. Heymsfield, E., W. M. Hale. and T. L. Halsey. A Parametric Sensitivity Latham, F. Linear Deceleration Studies and Human Tolerance. 17(1), Analysis of Soft Ground Arrestor Systems. 2007. Feb 1958, Clin Sci (Lond), pp. 12135. Rogers, C. Aggregate for Truck Arrestor Beds. Downsview, Ontario: Lewis, S. T. and J. P. Stapp. Human Tolerance to Aircraft Seat Belt Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, 2006. ISBN 1424959152. Restraint. 29(3), March 1958, J. Aviat. Med., pp. 18796. San Filippo, W. K. and H. DeLong. Engineered Materials Arresting Moseley, H. G. and A. F. Zeller. Relation of Injury to Forces and Direc- System (EMAS): An Alternative Solution to Runway Overruns. 2004, tion of Deceleration in Aircraft Accidents. 2(10), Oct 1958, J. Aviat. ASCE/Air Transport. Med., pp. 73949.

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161 Preston-Thomas, H. et al. Human Tolerance to Multistage Rocket A.7. Material Science Acceleration Curves. 26(5), October 1955, J. Aviat. Med., pp. 39098. Stapp, J. P. Human Tolerance to Deceleration. 93(4), April 1957, Stehly, R. D. Report of Concrete Testing, Project: Engineered Material American Journal of Surgery, pp. 73440. Arresting System Minneapolis/St. Paul Airport.: American Engineering Stapp, J. P. Human Tolerance to Deceleration: Summary of 166 Runs. Testing, Inc., 2007, 05-03306. 22(1), February 1951, J. Aviat. Med., pp. 425. Stouffer, S. A Study of the Pressure and Moisture in the ESCO Arrestor Stapp, J. P. Effects of Mechanical Force on Living Tissue. 26(4), August Bed at MinneapolisSt. Paul Airport on June 22, 2000; Interim Data 1955, J. Aviat. Med., pp. 26888. Report.: University of Dayton Research Institute, 2000. Zuidema, G. D. et al. Human Tolerance to Prolonged Acceleration. 27(6), December 1956, J. Aviat. Med., pp. 469481. Zuidema, G. D. et al. Human Tolerance to Prolonged Acceleration. A.8. Modeling and Simulation 27(6), December 1956, J. Aviat. Med., pp. 469481. Bell, N., Y. Yu and P. J. Mucha. Particle-Based Simulation of Granular Materials. Paper presented at the Eurographics/ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation, 2005. A.6. Landing Gear Cook, R., C. A. Teubert, and G. Hayhoe. Soft Ground Arrestor Design Batill, S. M., and J. M. Bacarro. Modeling and Identification of Nonlinear Program: FAA, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1995. Dynamic Systems With Application to Aircraft Landing Gear. AIAA Dole, G. R., Jr. A Review of Computer Simulations for Aircraft-Surface (1988). Dynamics. Journal of Aircraft 23, no. 4 (1986): 257265. Chester, D. H. Aircraft Landing Impact Parametric Study With Emphasis Nezami, E. G., Y. M. A. Hashash, D. Zhao, and J. Ghaboussi. Simulation on Nose Gear Landing Conditions. Journal of Aircraft 39, no. 3 (2002): of Front End Loader Bucketsoil Interaction Using Discrete Element 394403. Method. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods Collins, R. L. Theories on the Mechanics of Tires and Their Applications in Geomechanics, no. 31 (2007): 114762. to Shimmy Analysis. Journal of Aircraft 8, no. 4 (1971): 271277. Pi, W. S. Dynamic Tire/soil Contact Surface Interaction Model for Currey, N. S. Aircraft Landing Gear Design: Principles and Practice AIAA Aircraft Ground Operations. Journal of Aircraft 25, no. 11 (1987): Education Series. ed. J. S. Przemieniecki: American Institute of 103844. Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1988. Holzapfel, F., R. Leitner and G. Sachs. High Fidelity Landing Gear Modeling for Real-Time Simulation. Paper presented at the AIAA A.9. Patents Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit, Keystone, Colorado 2006. Allen, G., R. D. Angley, J. L. Gordon, P. T. Mahal, and S. C. Valentini. Kilner, J. R. Pneumatic Tire Model for Aircraft Simulation. Journal of Jet Blast Resistant Vehicle Arresting Blocks, Beds and Methods. Aircraft 19, no. 10 (1982): 851857. United States Patent 6,971,817, 2005. Lee, C. R., J.-W. Kim, J. O. Hallquist, Y. Zhang, and A. D. Farahani. Angley, R. D., M. S. Ciesielski, C. T. Dial, P. T. Mahal, and R. F. Cook. Validation of a FEA Tire Model for Vehicle Dynamic Analysis and Vehicle Arresting Bed Systems. United States Patent 6,726,400, 2004. Full Vehicle Real Time Proving Ground Simulations. SAE Paper Angley, R. D., M. S. Ciesielski, C. T. Dial, P. T. Mahal, and R. F. Cook. Number 971100 (2005). Arresting Material Test Apparatus and Methods. United States Pacejka, H. B. Tire and Vehicle Dynamics. 2nd ed.: Society of Automotive Patent 5,789,681, 1998. Engineers, 2006. Cobb, L. C. and T. J. Hirsch. Roadway Barrier. United States Patent Pritchard, J. Overview of Landing Gear Dynamics. Journal of Aircraft 38, 5,054,954, 1991. no. 1 (2001): 13037. Larratt, D. R. et al., Aircraft Arresting System, United States Patent Wahi, M. K. Oleopneumatic Shock Strut Dynamic Analysis and Its Real- 5,193,764, 1993. Time Simulation. Journal of Aircraft 13, no. 4 (1976): 3038. Ogden, D. H. Vehicle Deceleration Means, United States Patent Wong, J. Y. Theory of Ground Vehicles. 3rd ed. New York, NY: John 3,967,704, 1976. Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001. Rastegar, J. S. and J. Qiaode. Roadway for Decelerating and/or Acceler- York, B. W. and O. Alaverdi. A Physically Representative Aircraft Land- ating a Vehicle Including an Aircraft. United States Patent ing Gear Model for Real-Time Simulation A96-35001 09-01. Paper 6,969,213, 2005. presented at the AIAA Flight Simulation Technologies Conference, Schirtzinger, J. F. Method and Means for Decelerating Aircraft on Run- San Diego, CA 1996. ways. United States Patent 3,066,896, 1962.