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19 CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1. Project Background available that can verify that an installed EMAS maintains its original design characteristics. Passenger aircraft can overrun the available runway The objective of this research was to advance the develop- area during takeoff and landing, creating accidents involv- ment of alternative civil aircraft arresting systems to safely ing aircraft damage and loss of life. The increasing speed decelerate aircraft that overshoot the runway. The research and weight of modern passenger aircraft require longer sought to evaluate alternatives to the current EMAS technol- runways, but many airports are landlocked by surrounding ogy, with the goal of finding options that might offer better buildings, bodies of water, or geographic features that pre- performance, lower cost, or higher durability. The research vent runway extension. These facts, combined with the involved technical and non-technical aspects such as can- increasing volume of air traffic, make overrun risks more didate system evaluation, cost estimation, standards-related relevant today than when many U.S. airports were first investigation, and airport surveys. A number of candidate constructed. systems and materials were evaluated; some were similar in To mitigate overruns that take place, the Federal Aviation function to the current system while some were categorically Administration (FAA) now requires that all runways have a different. Runway Safety Area (RSA) beyond the normal runway sur- face, typically with a length of 1,000 ft. This area provides an additional deceleration zone for planes that cannot stop before 1.2. EMAS Nomenclature reaching the runway end. However, some airports do not have In general, the FAA advisory circular regarding EMAS pro- sufficient land area to meet this requirement. In such cases, vides latitude regarding the materials and construction methods the airport can install an arrestor system that provides an that may be used; multiple EMAS designs could exist (1). At equivalent to the standard RSA. This use of arrestor systems present, however, only one manufacturer has an approved permits the airport to satisfy the FAA requirement within a EMAS design, which is the Engineered Arresting Systems Cor- smaller land space (1). poration, or ESCO. In general use, the term "EMAS" has largely Currently, the only type of civil aircraft arresting system become synonymous with this ESCO product. Nevertheless, that meets FAA standards is an Engineered Material Arresting "EMAS" as a system definition could be expanded in the future System (EMAS). A number of airports have installed EMAS, to include a number of other arrestors besides this current and these arrestors have demonstrated the ability to bring product. Many of the new arrestor system concepts discussed aircraft to a stop in several overrun incidents. in this report, if eventually approved and fielded, would qualify However, various issues and concerns regarding the as EMAS systems. current EMAS technology exist. The costs associated with As such, it is necessary to clarify the nomenclature that will acquiring and installing an EMAS are high due to the labor- be followed in this report. When technical comparisons are intensive assembly process. At many airports, the land area made regarding the design, construction, and performance of at the end of a runway is inadequate to accommodate a "EMAS," the term will refer to the systems presently deployed. full-sized EMAS system. In such cases, either additional When regulatory discussions are undertaken, the term will refer land must be developed for accommodation or a reduced- to the general requirements that pertain to the current and performance EMAS must be installed. The durability of the future passive arrestor systems. When clarification is required, system over time is unknown, and no tests are currently qualifications such as "current EMAS," "current EMAS design,"