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20 or "current EMAS technology" will be used to denote the 1.4. Research Approach ESCO product. The research was divided into two phases. The first "Study" phase included research, identification of alternatives, and 1.3. EMAS Description an initial down-selection of the most promising candidate arrestor concepts. The second "Experimentation" phase focused An EMAS is a surface-based arrestor constructed as a large on evaluating the candidate concepts through testing and bed that resides in the RSA beyond the end of a runway modeling. (Figure 1-1). EMAS dimensions can vary considerably, but Table 1-1 presents a basic guide to the report. Chapters 2 typical dimensions are approximately 300 ft in length by 150 ft through 6 discuss the findings of the study phase, which focused in width, with a nominal 75-ft setback from the runway on information gathering and evaluation. These sections end. Depending on the available space in the RSA, it can be more cost-effective to install shorter EMAS beds with longer examine the overall context for arrestors, including historical setbacks. and current usage, an EMAS cost evaluation, the impact of The current EMAS design features 4-ft by 4-ft blocks of FAA requirements, and processes for approving new arrestor cellular (foamed) cement, usually in one of two compressive systems. strengths. The blocks have narrow gaps between them for Chapter 7 is a key transitional chapter, which identifies dif- venting and drainage, and the tops of these joints are sealed ferent potential systems and places them within the broader against rain. The depth of the blocks varies depending on the context of past and present arrestor approaches. This chapter bed design. The sides of the bed stair-step for pedestrian and includes conceptual discussion of the key mechanical dis- emergency vehicle access. These side step blocks are not con- tinctions between the different concepts from a performance sidered in performance calculations for the arresting bed. standpoint. The candidates selected for detailed evaluation Prior to installing an EMAS, the site must be prepared with a are identified and briefly described. paved surface that provides a solid foundation for the bed and Chapters 8 through 14 discuss the experimentation phase adequate drainage. of the research, beginning with an overview of the evaluation Two generations of EMAS are currently installed at U.S. process. Each candidate is subsequently examined on an indi- airports. The older JBR-501 design used painted cement board vidual basis in Chapters 9 through 14. These chapters contain tops for the individual blocks and caulking to seal the joints in substantial technical content, but also examine the estimated between. The newer JBR-502 design uses plastic tops, which system costs and the requirements to transition into fielded do not require painting, and silicone tape to seal the joints. systems. As the only current FAA-approved arresting system, the Finally, Chapter 15 provides overall conclusions for the current EMAS design will serve as a baseline for the arrestor effort, including a general research summary and a comparison alternatives examined in this research. of the different candidate systems. Figure 1-1. EMAS arrestor, MinneapolisSt. Paul (MSP) Airport.

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21 Table 1-1. Guide to report. Chapter Content Project background and research Introduction Chapter 1. Introduction introduction Chapter 2. Literature Review Chapter 3. Survey of U.S. Airport Operators Chapter 4. Review and Documentation of FAA Discuss research findings on Study Phase Parameters indicated topics Chapter 5. Sensitivity Analysis Chapter 6. Approval and Commercialization Study Transition Chapter 7. Identification and Initial Assessment Important background preceding Chapter of Alternatives candidate assessment Overview of evaluation approach Chapter 8. Experimentation Overview to candidate systems Chapter 9. Glass Foam Arrestor Concept Chapter 10. Engineered Aggregate Arrestor Concept Experimentation Chapter 11. Aggregate Foam Arrestor Concept Phase Detailed evaluation of candidate Chapter 12. Depth-Varying Foam Material systems Chapter 13. Summary of Passive System Candidates Chapter 14. Main-Gear Engagement Active System Concept Conclusion Chapter 15. Conclusions Overall conclusions for research Appendix A. Bibliography Appendix B. Survey Details Appendix C. EMAS Calculations Appendices Appendix D. Active Arrestor Calculations Additional research details Appendix E. Human Injury Study Appendix F. Tire Models Appendix G. Arrestor Prediction Code