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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 24 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg James Crites Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond John K. Duval Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Beverly Municipal Airport Virginia, Charlottesville Kitty Freidheim Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Freidheim Consulting Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Jacksonville Aviation Authority Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Federal Aviation Administration Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Carolyn Motz Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Hagerstown Regional Airport Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., Richard Tucker Pitt Meadows, BC Huntsville International Airport Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO EX OFFICIO MEMBERS C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Sabrina Johnson Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Air Transport Association of America Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport Executives Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Transportation Research Board University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Christopher W. Jenks Administration, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2009. *Membership as of October 2009.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 24 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Jacobs Consultancy Burlingame, CA IN ASSOCIATION WITH WALKER PARKING CONSULTANTS Indianapolis, IN MANNIX GROUP Orlando, FL DMR CONSULTING Pasadena, CA Subject Areas Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 24 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 10-03 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-11809-5 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2009940240 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2009 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. 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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 24 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 10-03 PANEL Field of Operations Armin Jose Cruz, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, TX (Chair) Evelyn Y. Addante, Massachusetts Port Authority, Boston, MA Dan Brame, Brame Northwest Parking and Transportation, Portland, OR Harold Schulke, Kimley-Horn & Associates, Houston, TX Danilo Simich, Parsons, Costa Mesa, CA Tim Stiles, Des Moines International Airport, IA Paul L. Friedman, FAA Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research discussed in this report was performed under ACRP Project 10-03, "Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies," by a research team of recognized experts in airport parking planning, operations, and technologies. Jacobs Consultancy was the primary research con- sultant. Peter Mandle, Director at Jacobs Consultancy, was the Principal Investigator and W. Gavin R. Duncan, Principal Consultant at Jacobs Consultancy, was the Deputy Principal Investigator. The other authors were Andrew Blaisdell, Consultant at Jacobs Consultancy; Thomas A. Butcher, Executive Vice President at Walker Parking Consultants; Mike Mannix of the Mannix Group; and Diane Ricard, Princi- pal of DMR Consulting. Alice Richard, Senior Consultant at Jacobs Consultancy, coordinated the litera- ture review. Serena Quan coordinated the internal production and word processing. Deborah Lubin served as the technical editor. The research team would like to express its gratitude to the members of the project panel for their sup- port and insightful comments throughout this research project. The research team would also like to thank the many airport staff who took the time to share their insights, experience, and opinions with the research team and to respond to follow-up queries. The research team also appreciates the contribution of the representatives of the parking operators and equipment vendors and manufacturers who shared their knowledge of existing and forthcoming strategies and technologies.

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FOREWORD By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 24: Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Tech- nologies presents various parking strategies and technologies that are employed, or have poten- tial applications, at airports in the United States. This guidebook will assist airport operators in (1) determining their specific goals as they relate to public parking and their customer needs; (2) gaining an understanding of the parking strategies and technologies that correspond to their goals; and (3) evaluating benefits, costs, and implementation. With parking as the primary source of non-airline revenue at airports, and usually the cus- tomer's first and last experience with the airport, it is an important focus in an airport's over- all strategic plan. ACRP Report 24 provides--in a single source--a buffet of parking strategies and technologies to complement and achieve airport operators' long-term goals and objectives. This guidebook will be useful to airport parking owners and operators, and their consultants, as they strive to better accommodate the needs of their customers, improve customer service, increase operational efficiency, and enhance net revenues. Airport parking is unique compared with other parking facilities in that the customer as an airline passenger is different from the customer using parking facilities serving office buildings, shopping malls, hospitals, or downtown areas. Furthermore, each airport is unique among all other airports, as they vary in size, configuration, and the demographics of passengers served. Thus, their needs require a careful evaluation of strategies that best fit. Under ACRP Project 10-03, Jacobs Consultancy was assigned to develop a guidebook that could be used to compare and contrast available parking strategies and supporting tech- nologies and then provide guidance on implementation for each. The research team reviewed relevant domestic and foreign literature and interviewed parking managers at air- ports known to have unique solutions, as well as senior management of non-airport park- ing facilities and equipment vendors. These interviews were conducted both domestically and internationally. The resulting strategies are categorized to allow the reader to easily eval- uate relevant parking approaches to meet their goals and objectives.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Overview of the Guidebook 1 Purpose of the Guidebook 1 Distinguishing Characteristics of Airport Parking Customers 2 Distinguishing Characteristics of Airport Parking Operators 3 Methodology 4 Organization of the Guidebook 5 Chapter 2 Documenting the Goals of Airport Management 5 Evaluation of a Parking Strategy Begins with Management Goals 5 Confirming and Documenting Relevant Management Goals and Objectives 7 Developing Metrics to Evaluate the Performance of Selected Parking Strategies 8 Benchmarking 10 Chapter 3 Assessing Customer Needs and Preferences 10 Data Collection and Analysis 10 Focus Groups 11 Stakeholder Groups 11 Customer Surveys 13 Experience 14 Chapter 4 Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies 14 Parking Strategy and Technology Categories 15 Examples of Strategies Not Included 15 Potential Parking Strategies and Technologies 17 Category A: Parking Products--Duration Based 33 Category B: Value-Added Parking Products 53 Category C: Complementary Customer Services 68 Category D: Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems 86 Category E: Cashierless Transactions 101 Category F: Revenue Enhancement Strategies 116 Category G: Safety and Security Strategies 120 Category H: Operational Enhancements 128 Chapter 5 Selecting Potential Strategies and Supporting Technologies 128 Provide a High Level of Customer Service 129 Enhance Parking Revenues 130 Improve Operational Efficiency 139 Chapter 6 Evaluating Potential Strategies and Supporting Technologies 139 Consider the Specific Characteristics of the Airport and Its Customers 139 Airport Customers 141 The Airport Operator 142 Physical Airport Facilities

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143 Evaluate the Implications on Affected Organizations and Stakeholders, as Appropriate 144 Determine the Required Implementation Actions 144 Estimate the Costs and Benefits of Implementation 146 Chapter 7 Key Implementation Steps 146 Obtain Management Approval to Proceed 147 Develop an Implementation Plan 148 Implement the Strategy 148 Conduct Follow-On Review and Evaluation 150 Appendix A Cost Estimates 153 Appendix B Glossary 156 Appendix C Suggested Sources for Further Information 158 Appendix D Bibliography