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CATEGORY G: Safety and Security Strategies G.1 Visual Surveillance--Camera, 117 G.2 Emergency Audio Communications, 118 116

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CATEGORY G Safety and Security Strategies G.1 Visual Surveillance--Camera Implementation Actions Purpose 1. Conduct a security audit to analyze the risk of different incident types and classify the parking facility as to its risk Improve customer service by providing a deterrent to level. crimes against persons and property. Detect incidents in 2. Assure that all passive security features are incorporated progress. Increase the likelihood that a perpetrator can be into the facility to the maximum extent possible. Passive identified, arrested, and convicted. security measures are a physical part of the facility and enhance visibility--the ability to see and to be seen. 3. Determine which active security measures are necessary. Use by Customers Active security measures are those that invoke a human Video surveillance through a closed-circuit television response and include security patrols, emergency audio (CCTV) system can be effective for monitoring activity in a communications, and CCTV. large area from a single point. No action by the customer is 4. If the need for CCTV is determined, procure the system required to signal the CCTV system. When a suspicious per- with the assistance of appropriate security consultants/ son or incident is detected, or a door alarm is received, the per- designers and system vendors. son monitoring the CCTV system identifies the location and directs a responding security officer to the scene. A correspon- Key Considerations ding intercom system can be used to ward off the offender and 1. Cameras must be positioned to effectively cover all areas inform the victim that assistance is forthcoming. Behavior- of interest. The mounting locations must be carefully recognition technology can be integrated with CCTV systems selected. Lighting variations, external light sources, vehi- to detect and alert security staff to suspicious behavior, such cles, ramps, and structural features can all restrict the abil- as a person lurking or fallen, or to other situations, such as two ity to effectively monitor the areas of interest. people about to converge. Such a system can monitor an 2. The central CCTV monitoring station, including the oper- entire network of CCTV cameras, filtering out the mundane ator monitoring the system, should be visible to parking and reducing the tedium of manually monitoring the system. patrons, if possible. 3. Several strategically located, high-capability cameras with pan/tilt/zoom capabilities will enhance the efficiency of Benefits the system. Benefits of a CCTV system may include 4. The traditional rectangular housing protects only the camera and lens, but a domed circular housing covers and Deterrence of crime, as the potential perpetrator may sense protects the entire assembly. an increased possibility of being observed and apprehended. A greater sense of safety among parking patrons. Implementation Costs Enhanced ability to apprehend and prosecute the perpe- trators of crimes against persons or property, since the Implementation costs include those for the CCTV system, system can record an accurate depiction of the suspect the central monitoring station, and the personnel required to and vehicle involved. monitor the system and respond to incidents. 117

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118 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Ongoing O&M Costs G.2 Emergency Audio Communications CCTV systems require maintenance and upkeep to main- tain picture quality and reliability. Associated personnel costs Purpose are also ongoing. Improve customer safety and security by serving as a deter- rent to crimes against persons and property, and hasten the Implementation Schedule response of security personnel to an incident. The schedule for planning, design, procurement, and installation of a CCTV system is typically 6 to 12 months. Use by Customers Emergency audio communications can be provided by Supporting and Complementary Strategies panic buttons, emergency telephones, or two-way intercoms. and Technologies in This Guidebook A call box with a panic button and a two-way intercom is the Emergency Audio Communications (G.2). most common communication system for security purposes in parking facilities. The push-button calls an attendant and a Examples of Application two-way conversation can ensue. The attendant can mobilize an emergency responder. Panic buttons and intercoms are Many airport parking facilities in the United States, as well often mounted on freestanding pedestals, and blue lights with as in other countries, have CCTV surveillance systems (see strobe effects have become common to make them easy to Figure G.1). locate and to attract attention in case of an emergency. Use of a panic button or emergency intercom is dependent on the ability of a victim of an attack to reach the device and sound the alarm. Intercoms are often used in conjunction with panic but- tons, motion or sound surveillance, or CCTV to enhance the effectiveness of the overall system. If integrated with a CCTV system, a camera is automatically trained on the area when the call box is activated. Benefits Benefits of an emergency audio communications system may include Deterrence of crime, as potential perpetrators may sense a decreased probability of success. A greater sense of safety among parking patrons. Enhanced ability for emergency responders to detect and respond to an emergency in the parking facility in a timely manner. Implementation Actions 1. Conduct a security audit to analyze the risk of different inci- dent types and classify the parking facility as to its risk level. 2. Assure that all passive security features are incorporated into the facility to the maximum extent possible. Passive security measures are a physical part of the facility and enhance visibility--the ability to see and to be seen. Source: Jacobs Consultancy. 3. Determine which active security measures are necessary. Figure G.1. CCTV surveillance. Active security measures are those that invoke a human

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Category G: Safety and Security Strategies 119 response and include security patrols, emergency audio communications, and CCTV. 4. If the need for emergency audio communications is deter- mined, procure the system with the assistance of appro- priate security consultants/designers and system vendors. Key Considerations 1. Call boxes or voice-activated intercoms with panic but- tons are often located in elevators, elevator lobbies, and stairwells, and sometimes in parking areas. Two-way intercoms also are generally installed in all cashier booths and at all unstaffed entry and exit lanes. 2. Standard voice-activated systems are generally not practi- cal in parking areas because of background noise. 3. Two-way intercoms make it possible to zero in on an inci- dent and communicate to the victim that help is on the way, possibly deterring the perpetrator. 4. Panic buttons can be subject to abuse by vandals, leading to a "cry wolf" syndrome among those monitoring the sys- tem. CCTV coverage in the area surrounding a panic but- ton discourages false alarms. Source: Walker Parking Consultants. Figure G.2a. Emergency callbox at Ronald Implementation Costs Reagan Washington National Airport. Implementation costs include those for the audio com- munications system, the central monitoring station, and the personnel required to monitor the system and respond to incidents. Ongoing O&M Costs Audio communications systems require maintenance and upkeep to maintain functionality and reliability. Associated personnel costs are also ongoing. Implementation Schedule The schedule for planning, design, procurement, and installation of an audio communications system is typically 6 to 12 months. Supporting and Complementary Strategies and Technologies in This Guidebook Visual Surveillance--Camera (G.1). Examples of Application Source: Jacobs Consultancy. Many airport parking facilities in the United States, as well Figure G.2b. Minneapolis-St. Paul as in other countries, have emergency audio communications International Airport emergency systems (see Figures G.2a and G.2b). communications system.