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OCR for page 130
130 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Market share--The share of airline passenger parking transactions, revenues, or occupied spaces that is accommodated in airport-owned parking facilities versus privately operated off- airport facilities. A strategy or technology that increases the airport's market share provides an opportunity for additional parking revenues. Improve Operational Efficiency For public parking at airports, the effect of a parking product or service on operating efficiency is typically based on the factors listed below. More efficient operations enable an airport enter- prise to retain more of the revenue collected in parking fees (i.e., net revenue). Cost of staff--The number of staff hours (whether airport or contract employees) and cost per staff hour (including salary and benefits) related to operation of a parking facility, prod- uct, or service. Fewer staff hours or lower costs per hour indicate more efficient operations. Other operating expenses--The non-staff costs of operating a parking facility, product, or service. These costs may include utilities, maintenance materials, credit card fees, shuttle bus operations (vehicle leasing or depreciation, fueling, maintenance), uniforms, and manage- ment or concession fees. Lower costs for these items indicate more efficient operations. Square footage per parking space--The number of vehicles that can be stored within a given area. Some parking strategies, such as valet parking, allow vehicles to be stored more com- pactly than do others, such as a self-parking operation. A lower number of square feet per parking space indicates more efficient operations. Revenue security--Mitigation of the risk of losing revenue to customer or employee theft or fraud. Strategies or technologies that reduce a customer's or employee's ability or opportunity to handle cash, obtain lower-value parking tickets, exit a facility without paying, or wrongly claim damage to a vehicle indicate more efficient operations. As noted, Tables 5.1 through 5.3 summarize the qualitative assessment of how each parking strategy or technology influences the three overall goals described above. The extent to which each strategy or technology is expected to positively or negatively influence an airport operator's ability to meet each overall goal was assessed using one of the following five ratings: Very positive--The strategy or technology positively and significantly influences many of the relevant factors that contribute to meeting a goal. Somewhat positive--The strategy or technology positively influences some of the relevant factors that contribute to meeting a goal, and perhaps influences a few factors significantly. Neutral--A strategy that equally provides positive and negative influences on factors that con- tribute to meeting a goal, or a strategy that has no effect on meeting a particular goal. Somewhat negative--The strategy or technology negatively influences some of the relevant factors that contribute to meeting a goal, and perhaps influences a few factors significantly. Very negative--The strategy or technology negatively and significantly influences many factors that contribute to meeting a goal. In addition to identifying those strategies that best respond to management's objectives, it is helpful to identify complementary strategies and consider including them in the list of candidate strategies to be evaluated. Please see the descriptions of the strategies in Chapter 4 for lists of sup- porting and complementary strategies and technologies.

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Selecting Potential Strategies and Supporting Technologies 131 Table 5.1. Ability of strategy to improve customer service. Improves customer service Somewhat Somewhat negative negative positive positive Neutral Very Very Categories/Strategies Notes A. Parking Products--Duration Based A.1 Hourly/Short-Duration Parking * Also reduces curbside congestion. A.2 Daily Parking * A.3 Economy/Long-Duration Parking * Very-Short-Duration A.4 * Eliminates free curbside option. Parking/Curbside Areas A.5 Free 30-Minute Parking * Also reduces curbside congestion. Also reduces curbside congestion and recirculating A.6 Cell Phone Lots * traffic. Increases assurance that short-duration spaces are A.7 No Overnight Parking Zones * available, but prohibits long-duration parkers from using convenient parking spaces. A.8 Vacation Parking * Assures available spaces during busy periods, but A.9 Holiday/Overflow Parking * spaces may be inconvenient. A.10 Parking Condominiums * B. Value-Added Parking Products Valet Parking--Curbside Drop- B.1 * Off/Pickup Valet Parking--Curbside Drop- B.2 * Off/Pickup with Airline Check-In Valet Parking--Non-Curbside B.3 * Drop-Off/Pickup Valet Parking--Customer B.4 Transported to/from Airport in * Shuttle Van B.5 Business Parking * B.6 Monthly Billing--Pay per Use * Reserved Parking Zone--Pay B.7 * per Use Guaranteed Space--Unlimited B.8 * Use B.9 Validated Parking--Retail * Validated Parking--Park-Sleep- B.10 * Fly B.11 XXL (Extra Large) Parking * B.12 Parking for Ladies and Families * Secure Parking and Secure B.13 * Parking with Valet Service (continued on next page)

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132 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Table 5.1. (Continued). Improves customer service Somewhat Somewhat negative negative positive positive Neutral Very Very Categories/Strategies Notes C. Complementary Customer Services C.1 Vehicle Washing and Servicing * C.2 Concierge Services * Onsite Sale of Food, Beverages, C.3 * and Other Products Pre-Ordered In-Flight Meals to C.4 * Go Loyalty Programs (Frequent C.5 * Parker Programs) Market for this service is declining, as more patrons C.6 Passenger Check-In Kiosks * check-in prior to leaving for the airport. C.7 Baggage Check-In * C.8 Pet Kennels * C.9 Shaded Spaces * Benefits vary depending on local weather conditions. Shaded Spaces with Solar C.10 * Panels C-11 Electric Charging Stations * Limited customer base at present. D. Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems Space Availability via the Internet D.1 * Depends upon when information is received. Prior to Arrival Space Availability via D.2 * Phone/Radio Prior to Arrival D.3 Space Availability by Facility * Space Availability by Parking D.4 * Level D.5 Space Availability by Aisle/Sector * Provides environmental benefits as well. D.6 Space Availability by Space * Provides environmental benefits as well. D.7 Managed Fills * D.8 Parking Compartments * Provides environmental benefits as well. D.9 Space Locators * D.10 In-Vehicle Parking Technologies * Future technology, uncertain impacts. E. Cashierless Transactions E.1 Pay-on-Foot Systems * E.2 Credit Card In/Out * E.3 Automatic Vehicle * Most beneficial if tag is issued by regional toll authority. Identification/Radio-Frequency Identification E.4 IntelliDrive * Future technology, uncertain impacts. E.5 Proximity Cards * E.6 License Plate Recognition * Limited applicability in North America. E.7 Cellular Telephone/Pay by Cell * Generally not appropriate for airports. E.8 In-Car Meters * Generally not appropriate for airports. E.9 In-Lane Processing * Generally not appropriate for airports. (continued)

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Selecting Potential Strategies and Supporting Technologies 133 Table 5.1. (Continued). Improves customer service Somewhat Somewhat negative negative positive positive Neutral Very Very Categories/Strategies Notes F. Revenue Enhancement Strategies Depends on purpose of rate adjustments. Rate F.1 Parking Rate Adjustments * adjustments intended to increase space availability in a particular product may improve customer service. F.2 Strategic Pricing * F.3 Web-Based Reservations * F.4 Yield Management * F.5 Coupons * Advertising Sales--Interior, F.6 * Exterior, Tickets, and Equipment F.7 Branding * F.8 Marketing * G. Safety and Security Strategies G.1 Visual Surveillance--Camera * Emergency Audio G.2 * Communications H. Operational Enhancements H.1 Parking Facility Operation Options * H.2 Privatized Facility Development * Automated Overnight License H.3 * Plate Inventory Source: Jacobs Consultancy, April 2009.

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134 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Table 5.2. Ability of strategy to enhance parking revenues. Enhances parking revenues Somewhat Somewhat negative negative positive positive Neutral Very Very Categories/Strategies Notes A. Parking Products--Duration Based Depends on prices for other parking products and A.1 Hourly/Short-Duration Parking * goals of airport management (i.e., lower hourly/short- duration parking rates decrease curbside congestion). A.2 Daily Parking * Depends on prices for other parking products. A.3 Economy/Long-Duration Parking * Depends on prices for other parking products. Very-Short-Duration A.4 * Parking/Curbside Areas A.5 Free 30-Minute Parking * A.6 Cell Phone Lots * A.7 No Overnight Parking Zones * A.8 Vacation Parking * A.9 Holiday/Overflow Parking * A.10 Parking Condominiums * B. Value-Added Parking Products Valet Parking--Curbside Drop- B.1 * Off/Pickup Valet Parking--Curbside Drop- B.2 * Off/Pickup with Airline Check-In Valet Parking--Non-Curbside B.3 * Drop-Off/Pickup Valet Parking--Customer B.4 Transported to/from Airport in * Shuttle Van B.5 Business Parking * B.6 Monthly Billing--Pay per Use * Reserved Parking Zone--Pay B.7 * per Use Guaranteed Space--Unlimited B.8 * Use B.9 Validated Parking--Retail * Validated Parking--Park-Sleep- Depends on how revenue is allocated to parking B.10 * Fly operation versus hotel operation. B.11 XXL (Extra Large) Parking * B.12 Parking for Ladies and Families * Secure Parking and Secure B.13 * Parking with Valet Service C. Complementary Customer Services C.1 Vehicle Washing and Servicing * C.2 Concierge Services * Onsite Sale of Food, Beverages, C.3 * and Other Products Pre-Ordered In-Flight Meals to C.4 * Go Loyalty Programs (Frequent C.5 * Parker Programs) C.6 Passenger Check-In Kiosks * C.7 Baggage Check-In * C.8 Pet Kennels * C.9 Shaded Spaces * C.10 Shaded Spaces with Solar Panels * C.11 Electric Charging Stations * (continued)

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Selecting Potential Strategies and Supporting Technologies 135 Table 5.2. (Continued). Enhances parking revenues Somewhat Somewhat negative negative positive positive Neutral Very Very Categories/Strategies Notes D. Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems Space Availability via the Internet D.1 * Prior to Arrival Space Availability via D.2 * Phone/Radio Prior to Arrival D.3 Space Availability by Facility * Space Availability by Parking D.4 * Level D.5 Space Availability by Aisle/Sector * D.6 Space Availability by Space * D.7 Managed Fills * D.8 Parking Compartments * D.9 Space Locators * D.10 In-Vehicle Parking Technologies * Future technology, uncertain impacts. E. Cashierless Transactions Assuming that payment method does not affect parking E.1 Pay-on-Foot Systems * rate. E.2 Credit Card In/Out * Automatic Vehicle E.3 Identification/Radio-Frequency * Identification E.4 IntelliDrive * Future technology, uncertain impacts. Cards may be associated with a specialized product, E.5 Proximity Cards * which may enhance parking revenues. E.6 License Plate Recognition * E.7 Cellular Telephone/Pay by Cell * Generally not appropriate for airports. E.8 In-Car Meters * Generally not appropriate for airports. E.9 In-Lane Processing * Generally not appropriate for airports. F. Revenue Enhancement Strategies F.1 Parking Rate Adjustments * May reduce near-term revenues, but increase market F.2 Strategic Pricing * share, which can result in higher future revenues. F.3 Web-Based Reservations * F.4 Yield Management * Depends on whether discount is offset by increased F.5 Coupons * transactions. Advertising Sales--Interior, F.6 * Exterior, Tickets, and Equipment F.7 Branding * F.8 Marketing * G. Safety and Security Strategies G.1 Visual Surveillance--Camera * Emergency Audio G.2 * Communications H. Operational Enhancements Parking Facility Operation H.1 * Depends on selected option. Options May generate large lump sum payment or reduce H.2 Privatized Facility Development * capital development costs. Automated Overnight License H.3 * Plate Inventory Note: Operational expenses were not considered; see Table 5.3. Source: Jacobs Consultancy, April 2009.

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136 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Table 5.3. Ability of strategy to improve operational efficiency. Improves operational efficiency Somewhat Somewhat negative negative positive positive Neutral Very Very Categories/Strategies Notes A. Parking Products--Duration Based A.1 Hourly/Short-Duration Parking * May require separate entry lanes. A.2 Daily Parking * May require separate entry lanes. A.3 Economy/Long-Duration Parking * Shuttle bus operations are costly. Very-Short-Duration A.4 * Parking/Curbside Areas A.5 Free 30-Minute Parking * A.6 Cell Phone Lots * Assumes a reduced need for curbside enforcement. A.7 No-Overnight-Parking Zones * Requires additional enforcement. A.8 Vacation Parking * Depends on need for shuttle bus. Increased efficiency if product can be combined with A.9 Holiday/Overflow Parking * another product (such as economy parking). A.10 Parking Condominiums * Service provided by third party. B. Value-Added Parking Products Valet Parking--Curbside Drop- B.1 * Off/Pickup Valet Parking--Curbside Drop- B.2 * Off/Pickup with Airline Check-In Valet Parking--Non-Curbside B.3 * Drop-Off/Pickup Valet Parking--Customer B.4 Transported to/from Airport in * Shuttle Van B.5 Business Parking * B.6 Monthly Billing--Pay per Use * Reserved Parking Zone--Pay B.7 * Lower space utilization. per Use Guaranteed Space--Unlimited B.8 * Lower space utilization. Use B.9 Validated Parking--Retail * Validated Parking--Park-Sleep- B.10 * Fly B.11 XXL (Extra Large) Parking * Less efficient use of available area. B.12 Parking for Ladies and Families * Secure Parking and Secure B.13 * Service provided by third party. Parking with Valet Service (continued)

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Selecting Potential Strategies and Supporting Technologies 137 Table 5.3. (Continued). Improves operational efficiency Somewhat Somewhat negative negative positive positive Neutral Very Very Categories/Strategies Notes C. Complementary Customer Services C.1 Vehicle Washing and Servicing * Service typically provided by third party. C.2 Concierge Services * Service typically provided by third party. Onsite Sale of Food, Beverages, C.3 * Service typically provided by third party. and Other Products Pre-Ordered In-Flight Meals to C.4 * Service typically provided by third party. Go Loyalty Programs (Frequent C.5 * Parker Programs) C.6 Passenger Check-In Kiosks * C.7 Baggage Check-In * Service typically provided by third party. C.8 Pet Kennels * Service typically provided by third party. C.9 Shaded Spaces * Shaded Spaces with Solar C.10 * Reduces utility expenses. Panels C.11 Electric Charging Stations * D. Parking Space Availability and Guidance Systems Space Availability via the Internet D.1 * Prior to Arrival Space Availability via D.2 * Phone/Radio Prior to Arrival D.3 Space Availability by Facility * Space Availability by Parking D.4 * Level D.5 Space Availability by Aisle/Sector * D.6 Space Availability by Space * D.7 Managed Fills * D.8 Parking Compartments * D.9 Space Locators * D.10 In-Vehicle Parking Technologies * Future technology, uncertain impacts. E. Cashierless Transactions Cashier cost savings may be partially offset by E.1 Pay-on-Foot Systems * increased maintenance expenses. Revenue security may be partially offset by increased E.2 Credit Card In/Out * processing fees. Automatic Vehicle Revenue security may be partially offset by increased E.3 Identification/Radio-Frequency * processing fees. Identification E.4 IntelliDrive * Future technology, uncertain impacts. Revenue security may be partially offset by increased E.5 Proximity Cards * expenses to operate program and billing mechanisms. E.6 License Plate Recognition * Often requires additional staff. E.7 Cellular Telephone/Pay by Cell * Generally not appropriate for airports. Eliminates need for parking revenue equipment. E.8 In-Car Meters * Generally not appropriate for airports. E.9 In-Lane Processing * Generally not appropriate for airports. (continued on next page)

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138 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Table 5.3. (Continued). Improves operational efficiency Somewhat Somewhat negative negative positive positive Neutral Very Very Categories/Strategies Notes F. Revenue Enhancement Strategies Can improve balance of parking space use among F.1 Parking Rate Adjustments * facilities. F.2 Strategic Pricing * F.3 Web-Based Reservations * Depends on who operates the system. F.4 Yield Management * F.5 Coupons * Advertising Sales--Interior, F.6 * Exterior, Tickets, and Equipment F.7 Branding * F.8 Marketing * G. Safety and Security Strategies G.1 Visual Surveillance--Camera * Emergency Audio G.2 * Communications H. Operational Enhancements Parking Facility Operation H.1 * Options H.2 Privatized Facility Development * Automated Overnight License H.3 * Plate Inventory Source: Jacobs Consultancy, April 2009.