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Evaluating Potential Strategies and Supporting Technologies 143 ing space to accommodate the strategy. For example, some strategies require (1) providing space to store customers' vehicles (e.g., valet parking), (2) developing an appropriate area to house new computer equipment, (3) dividing an existing parking facility into nested areas or zones with gate-controlled access points, or (4) developing new parking facilities. Other strate- gies may require new or modified entry and exit routes for vehicles and pedestrians. It is impor- tant to confirm that an adequately sized site or location is available for these strategies. Number and location of parking facilities--Some airports have dispersed parking lots or garages, or facilities with multiple pedestrian or vehicular entry/exit points. If each parking lot or garage requires a separate entry and exit plaza, the implementation and operating costs of sev- eral strategies will increase because of the additional control equipment required. If the parking facilities have many pedestrian pathways between the terminal and parking facility, it will be more expensive to implement strategies that customers must use when they walk back to their parked cars (e.g., pay-on-foot systems) because of the increased equipment costs. Thus, these strategies have proven most successful at airports with concentrated pedestrian flows that minimize the number of locations where equipment or services must be provided. Consistency with development plans--It is important that any physical changes, construction of new facilities, or major modifications to existing facilities are consistent with the airport mas- ter plan or long-range land use plan. Typically, interim or temporary construction is not desir- able unless there is a favorable expected return on investment (i.e., additional revenues will allow the capital investment to be recovered) or the proposed capital expenditures are required to support other projects as well. Evaluate the Implications on Affected Organizations and Stakeholders, as Appropriate As stated previously, parking is integral to an airport's customer service and financing, and is one of the few services that passengers encounter that is controlled entirely by airport management. Since implementation of a new parking strategy may affect several airport departments or divisions, as well as other stakeholders, it is helpful to determine which entities will be affected and how they may be affected by the new strategy. Some of the factors to be considered include the following: Parking staff--Some strategies may result in a reduction in the current number of parking staff, a reassignment of staff to other (lesser paid) duties, or otherwise affect their salaries and benefits. Other strategies require increased oversight of bus drivers, valet attendants, or other employees serving parking customers (e.g., remote baggage-check facilities). Parking management--It should be confirmed that a strategy expected to generate new rev- enues or attract new customers will do so and not divert existing customers to lower-priced products. The likely operational effects of the new strategy should be reviewed, along with changes in policies or procedures, and it should be determined which changes must be approved by management or the airport board. Maintenance, IT, and engineering staff--Many of the strategies increase the responsibilities of airport facility maintenance staff (or the contractor responsible for facility maintenance), airport IT staff, or engineering staff. Strategies requiring construction, acquisition of new equipment, or modifications to power or an IT network may require the involvement of engi- neering and IT staff. Audit, finance, and properties staff--Some strategies result in changes to the reports available to audit staff, the way revenues are received or reported (e.g., those that result in increased use of credit cards), or require new business agreements with new concessionaires or modifications to agreements with existing concessionaires or parking management companies. A contract or procurement process may require the approval of the airport's risk management staff, procure- ment staff, or legal counsel.