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144 Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies Public relations or marketing staff--Many of the identified strategies--particularly those that represent the introduction of a new service--will require a marketing or advertising program to alert potential customers. Often this requires the participation and support of the airport's public relations or marketing staff. Operators of off-airport parking facilities--These off-airport operators will be affected by any strategy that reduces their business volume, revenues, or ability to conduct business. It is likely that they will object to changes affecting their profits by complaining directly to members of the airport's governing board, commission, or city council. Airport boards and commissions--Many strategies, particularly those affecting parking rates or involving a major capital expenditure, require the approval of an airport board or commis- sion. These boards are often interested in how a strategy will affect airline passengers and the air- port's finances in terms of changes in costs and services. It may be helpful to cite the experience of other airport operators--especially the operators of identified peer airports--who have implemented the same or similar strategies. Other approving agencies--Depending on the type of strategy, it may be necessary to obtain the approval of other agencies, including those responsible for building inspections/code com- pliance, and local environmental permitting agencies. Determine the Required Implementation Actions Chapter 7 provides an overview of implementation actions. For purposes of evaluating a poten- tial strategy, the key considerations are to determine the level of effort, responsible parties, and lead time required to implement a strategy. Among the key considerations are the following: Required approval process--It is necessary to determine the procedures required to gain approval for and implement a strategy. For example, which agencies must approve the strat- egy? Are a competitive proposal process and preparation of designs or specifications required? Will operating procedures change? Can airport staff simply issue an acquisition order for the equipment? Are environmental or building permits required? Are there any building or fire code compliance issues? Level of effort required--Determine if the implementation tasks can be conducted using just airport staff or if outside support or expertise is required. Lead time required--Estimate the total time required for obtaining management approval, design (if required), acquisition, implementation, and testing (if required). Determine if the strategy requires new business agreements, changes to existing business agreements (e.g., valet parking), or approval to revise policies (e.g., coupons) or operating procedures (e.g., reserved parking). The total time will also be dependent upon whether the supporting infrastructure is in place or must first be designed and built. Availability of responsible persons--Establish which entity and staff will serve as the lead and agree to oversee implementation of the strategy. Confirm that they have adequate expertise and adequate time to devote to implementation of the strategy and assess other competing priorities and whether or not the other priorities are likely to interfere with the success of this project. Airport management approval--Determine the steps typically required to obtain the approval of airport management or the airport board. Establish what information or analyses they typ- ically expect. Airline approval--Capital expenditures exceeding certain amounts may require approval from the airlines. Estimate the Costs and Benefits of Implementation A key step in the evaluation of a strategy is estimating its costs and benefits. The costs may include the initial costs of construction, acquisition, and installation, as well as the expected

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Evaluating Potential Strategies and Supporting Technologies 145 ongoing costs of operations and maintenance (O&M). An initial estimate of construction costs and O&M costs can be prepared using the information contained in Appendix A. Changes in the estimated O&M costs for existing or new facilities may vary depending on many factors. These include the prevailing wage rates, the age of existing facilities, and the quality of the maintenance program. The expected benefits may include the following: Increases in gross or net parking revenues; Improvements to operational efficiencies or reductions in O&M or labor costs; Improvements to customer service, perhaps quantified by the value of the time saved by cus- tomers while searching for empty spaces or from other savings; Environmental benefits that may include reduced emissions resulting from reduced vehicle idling while in queues at entry/exit plazas, from reductions in vehicle miles traveled while recirculating on the airport or within a lot or garage to locate an empty space, or from reduced vehicle miles traveled by parking shuttle buses; and Reduced opportunities for fraud or theft.